THE 30TH ANNIVERSARY OF THE PERESTROIKA
A.S. Vashchuk. Perestroika in the Russian Far East in the subjective dimension of contemporaries: the hopes on social modernization and frustration
Angelina Vashchuk, Dr. Sc. (History), Professor, Head of Department of socio-political research, Institute of History, Archaeology and Ethnography of the Peoples of the Far East, FEB RAS, Vladivostok.
In the article reveals the problem of the attitude of society towards the ideas of Perestroika and the ways of their implementation taking into account the Far Eastern problems. A brief historiographic review is given. În the basis of sociological survey the author examines the hopes of the Far Eastern residents on social modernization and a wide range of social reflection which depicts the process of disappointments, related with mistrust of authority and the beginning of the social division. The novelty of this paper is that the analysis of the subjective dimension of Perestroika is conducted on the basis of the complex sources, demonstrating both the immediate perception of the reforms in the years of their implementation, and redefined one, 20 years later.
Key words: Perestroika, the Far East, the public mood, the political elite, M.S. Gorbachev.
E.N. Chernolutskaia. “The point of no return”: the demographic dynamics in the Far East of the USSR in the years of perestroika (1986—1991)
Elena Chernolutskaia, Dr. Sc. (History), Leading Researcher, Institute of History, Archaeology and Ethnography of the Peoples of the Far East, FEB RAS, Vladivostok.
The article describes the Genesis and chronological line of the Far East entering into protracted demographic crisis in the years of perestroika. Specifics of the Far Eastern territories in this process is revealed. The author has carried out a correlation of the annual statistical information on the total, natural and migration increase of present (de facto) and resident (de jure) population. It is shown that the determining segment in the structure of the beginning negative dynamics of population was migration outflow, increasing the scale of which had close dependence on the specifics and strength reserve of local economic-social sphere.
Key words: demographic crisis, migration outflow, perestroika, the Far East of the USSR.
A.P. Konyakhina. Practice of civic participation on the Russian Far East. From private interests to public policy: in search of solidarity
Anastasia Konyakhina, Associate Researcher, Institute of History, Archaeology and Ethnography of the Peoples of the Far East, FEB RAS, Vladivostok.
In the article on the basis of sociological theories in the field of civic engagement and trust with the involvement of a variety of sources (archival documents, opinion polls and interviews) the case of the Far East during the perestroika period and the present is considered. In the focus of attention are the issues of forming of solidarity as a source of social capital. We investigate the circumstances and motives of the transformation of the individual interest to the public through participation in the definition of social problems and the involvement in civil collective actions. It is concluded that, in general, display of solidarity in the space of public policy has been erratic and localized in situations of external threats to the regional community.
Key words: perestroika, solidarity, trust, social problem, civic participation, social movement, Russian Far East.
A.E. Savchenko. The dynamic of the modernization process in central-peripherical dimension 1985—2012: contradictions and interconnection (the Primorsky region as example)
Anatoly Savchenko, Cand. Sc. (History), Research Fellow, Institute of History, Archeology and Etnography of the Peoples of the Far East, FEB RAS, Vladivostok.
Contradiction of modernization processes in Russia during the collapse of the USSR and following social transformation is analyzed in the article. Our research focused on the spatial opposition between center and periphery. We tried to show as modernization processes, generated by the state, are losing its potential in result socio-economic backwardness of the periphery.
Key words: center, periphery, modernization, state, development, “perestroika”
Y.N. Kovalevskaya. Perestroika as the everyday experience (according to the memorials in the Far East of Russia)
Yulia Kovalevskaya, Cand. Sc. (History), Senior Researcher, Institute of History, Archaeology and Ethnography of the Peoples of the Far East, FEB RAS, Vladivostok.
The 69 essays about Perestroika (1985—1991) are analyzed. Attitude to the Restructuring, the key events of the period, its influence to the daily life of the country, cities and villages of the Far East was researched. Personal statements that convey the spirit of the age in the free language forms are fixed.
Key words: Russia, Far East, Restructuring (1985—1991), daily life
S.G. Kovalenko. Middle managerial elite of Primorye in the years of perestroika: the reaction on the ground
Svetlana Kovalenko, Cand. Sc. (History), Senior Researcher, Institute of History, Archaeology and Ethnography of the Peoples of the Far East, FEB RAS, Vladivostok.
The article examines the role of the regional elite middle management in the processes occurring in the Primorye Territory in the era of perestroika. Different aspects of management relations, affecting the socio-economic processes 1985—1991 period, to the emerging conflicts between levels of government. By mid-level managers the author understands a wide range of individuals, from which depended specific decisions: plant managers, department heads, union leaders, chairmen of regional party committees.
Key words: middle management, regional elites, the Far East, the restructuring of the population.
A.S. Vaschuk, L.A. Krushanova. Anti-alcohol policy in the USSR in the period of Perestroika and its consequences in the Far East
Angelina Vaschuk, Prof., Head in the Department of social and political studies Institute of history, archeology and ethnography of the peoples of the Far East FEB RAS, Vladivostok.
Larisa Krushanova, Ph.D., Researcher in the Department of social and political studies Institute of history, archeology and ethnography of the peoples of the Far East FEB RAS, Vladivostok.
In article on materials of the Far East region versatile and inconsistent social influence of antialcoholic campaign on the Soviet society is considered. Manifestations of consequences of reforms on such parties as life and human health preservation, prevention of crimes, but with another — strengthening of a role of workers of trade, involvement of new citizens in shadow production of alcohol are shown. For the first time data are introduced into scientific circulation about attracted for violation of the antialcoholic legislation in the Far East region, including for illegal production of alcoholic beverages.
Key words: Perestroyka, antialcoholic campaign, transformation, social changes of the USSR, Far East.
HISTORY AND INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS
Sharyl Corrado, Ph. D., Assistant Professor of History, Pepperdine University, Malibu, California, USA.
This article explores the changing place of Sakhalin on mental maps of the Priamur Region in the mid-nineteenth century held by explorer G.I. Nevels’koi and by Russian statesmen in St. Petersburg. It analyzes the significance, as well as insignificance, for the Russian state of the discovery that Sakhalin was an island, and the divergence between knowledge of the physical geography and the imagined geographies of the region, along with their role in Russia’s annexation of the territory.
Key words: Amur, Priamur Region, Sakhalin, Island, Mental Maps, Historical Geography, Imagined Geography.
B.M. Afonin. Will go away in the past a legacy of wars? (About geopolitics in the Asia Pasific Region)
Boris Afonin, Cand. Sc. (History), Senior Researcher, Institute of History, Archaeology and Ethnography of the Peoples of the Far East, Vladivostok.
This article analyzes the major geopolitics in the Asia Pacific Region, relations between Japan, China, Russia, two Korean States, territory dispute and others problem.
Key words: Asia Pacific Region, International relations, Japan, China, Russia, Republic of Korea, Korean People’s Democratic Republic, USA, territory dispute, process of militarization.
Sergey Ivanov, junior research fellow, Center for International Relations and Security, IHAE, FEB RAS, Vladivostok.
The article focuses on the cases of Shenzhen special economic zone and economic zones bordering with Russia to identify the role of the Chinese government in development of these territories in 1980—1990s. The author makes a conclusion about crucial role of Chinese government and mechanisms of internal redistribution of capital in development of special economic zones. These factors should be taken into account while establishing special economic zones in Russian Far East.
Key words: China, Russian Far East, special economic zone, Shenzhen, Suifenhe, Heihe, cross-border zone of economic cooperation, territory of advanced development.
E.V. Pustovoyt. Legislative measures for Okinawa Reversion into Japan and its integration processes in the Asia-Pacific Region
Evgeny Pustovoyt, Cand. Sc. (History), Research Fellow, Department of International Relations and Security Studies, The Institute of History, Archeology and Ethnography of the Peoples of the Far East, FEB RAS, Vladivostok.
This article analyzes the process of Okinawa reversion, administrative rights to the Ryukyu Islands, a legal recovery of Okinawa Prefecture in 1972, legislative registration of political, economic and social spaces between Okinawa and Japan during the transitional period (1969—1972), as well as Okinawa’s international relations with Asia-Pacific countries after reversion.
Key words: Government of the Ryukyus, Okinawa, Japan, legislation, new territory.
Alexander Kurmazov, Cand. Sc. (Economics).
Japan consists of five large islands and dozens of thousands of small islands, so it needs to conduct the specific island policy. The importance of small islands for Japan is shown, as well as problems of its preservation and defense. Even very small islands are important for definition of territorial waters and EEZ bordures. The marine spaces around the islands are very reach of many kinds of resources and it increases its valuables.
Key words: Japan, islands, outskirts, marine spaces, possession, population, resources.
Vladimir Kozhevnikov, Cand. Sc. (History), Leading Researcher, Institute of History, Archeology and Ethnography of the Peoples of the Far East, FEB RAS, Vladivostok.
The paper analyzes the problem of the influence of the national Japanese Shinto religion to the problems of nationalism in Japan and the perception of this phenomenon in the neighboring countries. Attempts to analyze the reaction of China and the Republic of Korea to visit Japanese political leaders to the Yasukuni Shrine, which is considered a symbol of Japanese militarism. In this temple honored the souls of those who gave their lives for Japan. The problem is that the list included those souls and the souls of war criminals convicted by the Tokyo Tribunal. The article details the history of the temple and attempted to address the roots of traditional religious attitude of the Japanese to honor the dead. Attempts to answer the question of why Japanese politicians visit this temple despite protests from neighbors.
Key words: Japanese national religion of Shinto, Japanese nationalism, Yasukuni Shrine, war criminals, the veneration of the dead, the Japanese mentality, the attitude of the Japanese to visit the Yasukuni Shrine.
V.C. Golovachev, V.A. Perminova. Japanese opium policy in Taiwan as the best model of modernization in Russian Far East
Valentin Golovachev, Ph.D., Sr. Res. Fellow, Institute of Oriental Studies, RAS, Moscow.
Vera Perminova, Postgraduate, Institute of Oriental Studies, RAS, Moscow.
Opium smoking had been an acute problem in Russian Far East for decades. The forbidding laws of the government in XIX ñ. made opium smoking widespread in Far-Eastern part of Russian Empire. Deteriorating situation impelled some Russian experts to research opium policy of foreign countries. E.g., Russian journalist I.S. Levitov wrote several articles to prove his conclusion that Russia should adopt the “best of all” Japanese practice of the opium smoking control — the policy implemented by Japanese in colonial Taiwan. In order to find out to what extent could this model be applicable to Russian Far East, the authors studied Levitov’s articles and the details of Japanese opium policy in Taiwan.
Key words: colonialism, Far East, international affairs, Levitov, opium, opium smoking, Russia, Taiwan, Japan.
Anatoly Savchenko, Cand. Sc. (History), Research Fellow, Institute of History, Archeology and Etnography of the Peoples of the Far East, FEB RAS, Vladivostok.
The article is devoted to perspectives of newly adopted model of development of Russian Far East in the context of post-soviet experience of far-eastern policy. The main political factors, which obstacles to attract foreign capital to this Russian region in 1990-s, as their transformation till present time, is considered.
Key words: The Far East, regional policy, territory of priority development, foreign capital.
V.E. Boldyrev. Pacific Russia Integration into Asia-Pacific Rim: U.S. Government’s and Business’s Views
Vitaliy Boldyrev, postgraduate of Institute of History, Archeology and Ethnography of Peoples of the Far East FEB RAS, Vladivostok.
In the article the U.S. government’s and business’s views on Pacific Russia integration into Asia-Pacific Rim are analyzed. It was determined that neither government nor business don’t see it integrated in the region by different reasons.
Key words: Russia, USA, Asia-Pacific Rim, Integration.
ARCHAEOLOGY, ETHNOGRAPHY AND CULTURE
Alexander Ivliev, Institute of History, Archaeology and Ethnography of Peoples of the Far East, FEB RAS, Vladivostok.
The paper for the first time presents full list of epigraphic materials related to Bohai state and tribes inhabited its periphery in VII—X cc. found in Primorye Territory until now. Translations of epigraphic inscriptions and if possible their historical interpretation are made. The fact that up to now there are no trustworthy Bohai epigraphic relics written not in Chinese characters indicates that Chinese script was the only kind of written language that was used and widespread in Bohai.
Key words: epigraphy, Bohai state, written language of Bohai, archaeology.
Marina Osipova, Doctorate in History, Senior Researcher of the Ethnography Department of the Khabarovsk Territorial Museum after N.I. Grodekov, Khabarovsk.
The article deals with the question of classification of the Hokkaido Ainu traditional dance. The ideas expressed by domestic and foreign researches on this issue were analyzed. The author of the article attempts to represent the classification using modern approaches in choreography concerning aboriginal peoples dance.
Key words: Hokkaido Ainu, traditional dance, classification, game dance, ritual dance, spectacular dance.
I.V. Streltsova. The sleeveless female clothing as a part of Ukrainian traditional costume: the problems of preserving a tradition in Primorye region
Irina Streltsova, Doctoral student, Institute of History, Archaeology and Ethnography of the Peoples of the Far East FEB RAS, Vladivostok.
The article illuminates the traditional culture of Ukrainian migrants in Primorye region through representation and interpretation of the Ukrainian female sleeveless clothing. Along with descriptions of regional features of the traditional sleeveless clothing (such as cutting, fabric, ornamentation, etc.), the author highlights the problems of preservation of the Ukrainian traditional clothing in modern society.
Key words: Primorye region, Ukrainians, history, traditional costume, sleeveless clothing, reconstruction.
N.P. Ryabchenko. Zhenbao Island 45 years later
N.T. Kudinova, L.N. Buldygerova. The factor of national security of Russia
G.S. Popovkina, G.G. Yermak, A.V. Popovkin. Slavic world in APR: results of the scientific and practical conference