V.L. Larin. Editorial Preface
REFLECTIONS ON ETERNAL TOPICS
Vadim Turaev, Institute of History, Archaeology and Ethnology of the Peoples of the Far East, FEB RAS, Vladivostok, Russia.
The paper deals with a significant issue for many humanitarian sciences — the study of the national idea as a reason for existence of ethnicity. The relationship between the national idea of the state and the national idea of people including a multinational state is revealed. The significance of the culture of the indigenous peoples of Siberia and the Far East for Russia lies in the unique system of life support that was created by them and assimilated by the settlers. The main questions of the paper are: can the indigenous peoples have their own “national” idea in their current state and is there a need for it? The answer is related to several reasons: the lack of a common goal, profound changes in the way of life, the unsustainability of the idea of neo-traditionalism. It is concluded that the idea of multivariant culturally oriented self-development can be realized if certain conditions are fulfilled, and both indigenous peoples and public authorities should be involved in its implementation. These conditions include the synthesis of traditional nature management, natural economy and market relations, the transition from the policy of state paternalism to state protectionism, the involvement of indigenous peoples in the discussion and decision-making, etc.
Keywords: national idea, ethnicity, indigenous peoples of the Far East, statehood, globalization.
Ivan Stryuchenko, Institute of History, Archaeology and Ethnology of the Peoples of the Far East, FEB RAS, Vladivostok, Russia.
The paper is dedicated to the relations between culture and modern world civilization and raises issues that are relevant nowadays as well. At first glance, seemingly simple questions — what culture is and what civilization is — eventually come to the idea of spiritual values and their ñompleteness that is significant for modern mankind. Each of four groups of definitions of culture reflects one of the aspects of cultural essence: the spiritual life of a society, cultural heritage, knowledge, and the level of mastering cultural heritage. Culture is also a system of value orientations for individuals, society, and the state. After several stages, the comprehension of civilization is now perceived as a field of culture reflecting the priority spiritual values. The level of culture is strictly proportional to the use of civilization. The priorities of modern civilization, which emphasizes material goods, have led the world to the crisis. The paper concludes that the primary function of culture is to upbring the human. In the future the human will be the core of the new system of values, its significant components: the rich experience of world religions and the experience of atheistic existence of the human and human communities.
Keywords: culture, anti-culture, civilization, human, spiritual values.
L.I. Golovacheva The Janus Face of Culture. Philosophical Notes on Tradition and Civilization in Culture
Lidiya Golovacheva, Institute of History, Archaeology and Ethnology of the Peoples of the Far East, FEB RAS, Vladivostok, Russia.
The paper explores the dual nature of culture. Basing on Hegel’s research, K. Marx’s and M. Eliade’s ideas, the author reflects upon culture as the manifestation of the human essence. The author draws on notions of slavery and domination, focuses on individual, recognizing and universal types of self-consciousness, traditional culture, beginning of history, civilizational culture, and civilization as the goal of history. The relationship between the metaphysical and the physical origin constitutes the human essence. The human is doomed to master it all life, and the manifestation of the human essence (i.e., the degree of its mastery) is nothing else than culture. Culture has two forms of existence, and they are transmitted in different ways: by traditional culture and civilizational culture. The development of culture perceived as the manifestation of the human essence aims at the most profound manifestation of this essence as reasonableness and freedom. Referring to the concept of planetary culture, the author makes the following conclusion: the nations that are the members of the civilizational culture understand the universal essence of culture and abandon the self of their national culture. Besides, civilization is perceived as a dialogue of reasonable individuals.
Keywords: traditional culture, civilized culture, self-consciousness, duality of human nature, Hegel.
ARCHAEOLOGY AND ETHNOLOGY
Ernst Shavkunov, Institute of History, Archaeology and Ethnology of the Peoples of the Far East, FEB RAS, Vladivostok, Russia.
The Bohai State (698—926) was formed by the Mohe tribes. It included the lands of the Goguryeo state as well as part of the Goguryeo population. This encouraged the Bohai people to exploit the material and cultural potential of the Goguryeo people. The Goguryeo artisans came to Bohai and enriched the Bohai people with many elements of their culture in farming, warfare, and pottery. Thanks to the Goguryeo people, Buddhism quickly spread among the Bohai nobility. Indirectly, Bohai contributed to the preservation of the independent Silla state on the Korean peninsula — China tried to conquer that state, but the Bohai people, in alliance with the Second Eastern Turkic Khaganate, inflicted a series of defeats on China. After that, China considered it reasonable to have Silla as an ally against Bohai. This later contributed to the unification of the majority of the Korean population on the peninsula under Silla rule. Bohai developed mutually beneficial trade relations with Silla. There is evidence in written records of the special “Road to Silla” in Bohai with a network of intermediate stations and seaports. Thanks to the preservation of the ethnic Goguryeo nobility in Bohai, they were able to establish a new Korean state of Goryeo in 918 (918—1392).
Keywords: Far East, Primorye, Bohai, Mohe, Goguryeo, Silla, trade and cultural relations.
Yu.M. Vasilyev. Os Occipitalae and Its Role in Obsequial Rites of the Pokrovskaya Culture of the Amur Region (9th—13th Centuries)
Yuriy Vasilyev, The Institute of History, Archaeology and Ethnology of the Peoples of the Far East, FEB RAS, Vladivostok, Russia.
The paper focuses on the reasons of disruption of skeletal continuity and in particular the skulls in the burials of the Pokrovskaya culture from the ninth to the thirteenth centuries. The author considers the main factors of natural influence on the preservation of the bones in the burials and concludes that this impact could not lead to such phenomena as the absence of some skeletal bones in the presence of other bones, the movement of the skull and its parts inside the grave. It means that only human intervention could cause such damage to the skeletons. Analyzing the damages, the author proves that the destruction of skeletons in the burials is not the result of a secondary burial and mentions that secondary burial rites are very rare in the burial grounds of the Pokrovskaya culture. Drawing examples from history and ethnography, the author demonstrates the role of a skull as the habitation of the human soul and the embodiment of its charisma. Disruptions of skeletal continuity in the burials of the Pokrovskaya culture are the result of the rite to eliminate harmful effects of the deceased which took place between three and five years later after the burial and consisted in exhumation and destruction of the remains of the buried, especially his skull.
Keywords: archaeology, the Pokrovskaya culture, exhumations, inhumations, the rite of decontamination of the deceased.
Vitaliy Lenkov, Institute of History, Archaeology and Ethnology of the Peoples of the Far East, FEB RAS, Vladivostok, Russia.
This paper analyses the metallurgical production of the Bohai State (696—926). The traces of iron production — slags, smelting furnaces and forge hearths — were found on the archaeological sites of Bohai in Primorye. The Nikolaevskoe 2 ancient settlement was one of the handicraft metallurgical centres of Bohai. The Bohai people mined iron in the nearest ore occurrences. Crude ore was extracted in two ways: 1) flushing ore veins from coastal rocks into rivers; 2) mining the deposit using mines. Iron and steel were produced from the mined iron. Iron was used to cast various agricultural implements, boilers, wheeled wagon parts and bells. Bohai smiths had a certain set of tools for processing iron products — forge tongs, punches, chisels, files. The smiths were well qualified to make different items. They knew how to choose correct thermal conditions to avoid overheat and used different modes of hardening and tempering items. Bohai craftsmen had such a complex technological operation as forge welding. Bohai metalwork was at a high level not only in the central regions of Primorye but also in peripheral territories.
Keywords: Bohai, Primorye, metalworking, forging, smelting, welding, iron, steel, cast iron.
Nikolay Kocheshkov, The Institute of History, Archaeology and Ethnology of the Peoples of the Far East, FEB RAS, Vladivostok, Russia.
The paper examines the peculiarities of the development of the common economic and cultural type of the ethnogenetic historical and cultural area of arable farming among the Chinese, Korean and Japanese people. The economic and cultural type is presented as a totality of all human-created material and spiritual values of specific societies in their functional relationship. It reflects the natural and geographical environment and specific historical conditions. Classification plays a significant role among the used methods. The types of dwellings, clothing, means of transport, farming instruments, household utensils, and food pattern are analyzed as the initial objects of study, considering the social aspects. The important and determining role of Chinese traditions in different spheres of material and spiritual culture of the Korean and Japanese people is revealed. The main mechanisms of the development of the economic and cultural type of separate ethnic groups and their interethnic comparison characterize the united ethnosystem of farming culture.
Keywords: peoples of China, Korea and Japan, historical and cultural area, economic and cultural type, classification.
Galina Otaina, Institute of History, Archaeology and Ethnology of the Peoples of the Far East, FEB RAS, Vladivostok, Russia.
The paper is dedicated to the socio-economic and cultural situation of the indigenous peoples of the South of the Russian Far East during the Soviet period. The paper examines the ethnic history from the eighteenth to the twentieth centuries, political and economic difficulties, which occurred in the relations of indigenous peoples with the Russian population, and the consequences of ethnic processes. The history of ethnic writing of indigenous peoples is analyzed. It is proved that in the traditional economy and material culture the archaic features adapted to the local conditions of existence remain stable. The problem of creating families, clans, and other forms of traditional economy based on fixing the territories of traditional nature management in the legislation is raised. Summarizing the empirical material for preserving traditions and mentality of Far Eastern ethnic groups, it is recommended to use world experience in establishing reservations and forms of public mutual assistance as well as the acts of legislative programs related to health problems, land use, and ecological standards.
Keywords: indigenous peoples, chronological periodization, demographic processes, socio-economic and cultural transformations, fate of the native language, the South of the Russian Far East.
S.I. Lazareva. Charity in the Context of the Modernization Processes in Russia from the 16th to the Early 20th Centuries (National and Regional Aspects)
Svetlana Lazareva, The Institute of History, Archaeology and Ethnology of the Peoples of the Far East, FEB RAS, Vladivostok, Russia.
The paper is devoted to the history of charity formation and development in Russia as well as in the Far East from the sixteenth to the early twentieth centuries. It examines the main organizations that helped poor people, their goals, tasks, and peculiarities of their activities at each new stage of the development of public charity and assistance. Special attention is paid to the development of legislation to help the poor.
Keywords: charity, public assistance, social aid, organizations that help poor people.
Boris Mukhachev, Institute of History, Archaeology and Ethnology of the Peoples of the Far East, FEB RAS, Vladivostok, Russia.
The paper is dedicated to the history and trial of A.M. Krasnoschekov, former head of All-Russian trade and industrial bank, former Head of Dalsovnarkom and the Government of the Far Eastern Republic. Krasnoschekov was convicted for allegedly abusing his official position, facilitating his brother’s enrichment, supporting nepmen and moral degradation. A careful study of the materials of the investigation and trial proceedings of the Krasnoshchekov case led B.I. Mukhachev to the conclusion that the legal judgement was politically charged and had accusatory bias. In fact, it was the first impaction on NEP (New Economic Policy) and, according to the author, it could not be objective.
Keywords: A.M. Krasnoshchekov, the case of 1924, trial, indictment, biased verdict, political aspect, anti-NEP significance.
A.T. Mandrik. The Overwhelming Superiority of Japanese Capital in the Fishery of the Russian Far East (1923—1926)
Anatoliy Mandrik, Institute of History, Archaeology and Ethnology of the Peoples of the Far East, FEB RAS, Vladivostok, Russia.
The paper analyses Russian-Japanese relations in the field of fishery in the Far East in the 1920s and the process of Japan’s economic penetration into Russian fish industry. Basing on new archival documents, the author describes the peculiarities of Japanese fishery in the northern waters of the Pacific Basin, states the increasing influence of Japanese fishermen in Russian waters and concentration of Japanese industrial capital. It is concluded that the giant corporation “Nichiro Gyogyo Kabushiki Kaisha” (Russian-Japanese Fishing Company), which was established under the patronage of the Japanese government, monopolized the fishing, production of fish products and various canned goods in the Kuril-Kamchatka fishery region of Russia.
Keywords: Russian-Japanese relations, fishery, Japanese fishery, concentration of capital, monopolization of fishing, the Far Eastern waters of Russia.
L.I. Proskurina. Stalinist Collectivization: The Far Eastern Peasantry in the First Half of the 1930s
Lyudmila Proskurina, Institute of History, Archaeology and Ethnology of the Peoples of the Far East, FEB RAS, Vladivostok, Russia.
The paper analyzes the final stage of collectivization of the peasantry of the Soviet Far East (1933—1937). Special attention is paid to the violent nature of collectivization. The author concludes that dispossession, repressions in the Far Eastern villages led to harmful socio-economic and demographic consequences. There was a drop in agricultural production, the farms of the most powerful, enterprising peasants were ruined. The peasantry as a class of independent producers was abolished and the whole village lifestyle was destroyed.
Keywords: Far East, collectivization of the peasantry, violent methods, repressions, dispossession, negative consequences, destruction of the village lifestyle.
Alexander Borodin, Institute of History, Archaeology and Ethnology of the Peoples of the Far East, FEB RAS, Vladivostok, Russia.
The paper covers the events of the final stage of World War II. It is emphasized that the Soviet Armed Forces — army, aviation, and navy — were engaged in military operations in Manchuria, Korea, South Sakhalin, and the Kuril Islands, i.e., at the front of over six thousand kilometers. The author describes the military battles with Japan and focuses on the fact that Pacific warriors showed unparalleled dedication, courage, heroism, and weapon mastery both on land and sea.
Keywords: World War II, Soviet Armed Forces, military operations, Manchuria, Korea, South Sakhalin, Kuril Islands, Japan, Pacific warriors, courage and heroism.
Vitaliy Sovasteev, Institute of History, Archaeology and Ethnology of the Peoples of the Far East, FEB RAS, Vladivostok, Russia.
It is stated in the national research literature that liberalism is not popular in Japan. It loses out to conservatism: the Liberal Democratic Party of Japan, which is liberal by its name, is fundamentally conservative. It is underlined in the national literature that Japanese society is non-individualistic, and that individualism started to develop only after World War II under the influence of Western culture and the way of life. However, the history shows that the situation is more complex and ambiguous. The birth of Japanese liberalism dates back to the 1870s. The most outstanding representative of moderate liberalism in Japan is Fukuzawa Yukichi (1834—1901). The Meirokusha (“The Meiji 6 Society”) was established in 1873. Fukuzawa Yukichi was the most prominent representative of this society. In 1875, Fukuzawa published one of his most famous books, “Bunmeiron No Gairyaku” (“An Outline of a Theory of Civilisation”). The author analyses the work of Japanese philosopher Nishida Kitaro (1870—1945) and other liberals. The author concludes that even in the 1990s, none of the Japanese political parties were declared as a party of liberalism. The Democratic Party is the closest to the ideas of liberalism, but even there the liberal ideology is pushed aside.
Keywords: liberalism, conservatism, Liberal Democratic Party of Japan (LDP), individualism, Yoshida Shoin, Meiji Ishin, Nishida Kitaro, Fukuzawa Yukichi, “opening” of Japan to the outside world, Meirokusha society, civilization, “Movement for Freedom and National Rights”, first political parties, Japanese Constitution, Taisho Era, Taisho Democracy.
Andrey Polutov, Institute of History, Archaeology and Ethnology of the Peoples of the Far East, FEB RAS, Vladivostok, Russia.
Vladivostok has remained the object of close attention of Japanese political, economic, and intelligent services since the foundation until nowadays. The author examines the activities of Japanese intelligence in Vladivostok from 1875 to 1902 and concludes that the main targets of the operational intelligence were the navy, the fortress, and the port of Vladivostok. The interaction of different services allowed the Japanese intelligence to deploy active and effective intelligence activities on the eve of the Russian-Japanese war in a very short time. There was no serious counteraction to the Japanese intelligence in Vladivostok. Unfortunately, during the described period, the contemptuous disregard of intelligence and counterintelligence later became one of the reasons that led to Russia’s crushing defeat in the war with Japan. This paper is based on the documents from the collections of the National Archive, the Archive of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, and the Archive of the Research Institute for Defence of the Ministry of National Defence of Japan.
Keywords: Vladivostok, military intelligence, Japan, naval intelligence, General Staff, Ministry of Foreign Affairs.
Alexander Petrov, Institute of History, Archaeology and Ethnology of the Peoples of the Far East, FEB RAS, Vladivostok, Russia.
The historiography of the problem of appearance of the Chinese in Russia can be divided into domestic pre-revolutionary, Soviet and post-Soviet as well as Chinese, Russian speaking, etc. In this paper the author examines the first works of Russian researchers of China. The first information about the Chinese from the Ussuri region dates back to 1854. Great contribution was made by naval and army officers who often wrote voluminous geographical and ethnographical articles. These works enriched the knowledge about the Amur region. Thus, the first stage in the development of the national historiography was characterized by the accumulation of knowledge about the history of the Chinese in the Russian Far East. Theoretically and methodologically, the topic “the Chinese in Russia” wasn’t examined at all between 1858 and 1884. However, it is important that already at that time the first attempts were made to carry out the scientific analysis of the reasons for the appearance of the Chinese on the territory of the Ussuri region.
Keywords: China, Manchuria, studying Chinese, Russia, 1858—1884, scientific publications, Chinese, Amur, Russian naval and army officers, N.N. Muravyev, A. Vysheslavtsev.