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ANCIENT FORTIFICATIONS IN EURASIA
Olga Dyakova, Institute of History, Archaeology and Ethnography of the Peoples of the Far East, FEB RAS, Vladivostok, Russia. E-mail: emelianova49@mail.ru.
Sergey Batarshev, Institute of History, Archaeology and Ethnography of the Peoples of the Far East, FEB RAS, Vladivostok, Russia. E-mail: batar1980@mail.ru.
The article analyzes the results of excavations of the Bohai Hillfort Krasnoe Ozero in the Terneysky district of the Primorye Region in 2017. The stratigraphy of the monument is established. It is confirmed that the monument of Krasnoe Ozero is two-layered. A big settlement with large semi-underground dwellings were built by the representatives of the Mohe culture at the end of the sixth century AD in the valley on the left bank in two kilometers from the estuary of the Dzhigitovka river. The main material of the dwelling was stucco ceramics of the Mohe type (category I, type 2). A new hillfort of the valley type and of square form was constructed at the riverside of the Mohe settlement at the end of the eighth century. The hillfort was built in accordance with the traditional methods of urban planning for Bohai: square layout, mandatory bulk pillow, necessary for raising the surface and drainage of the foundation, simple gates in the form of a two-meter gap, the absence of towers. A distinctive feature of this fortification is that the ramparts of the Krasnoe Ozero hillfort were built by the layer-soil method (Khantu). The ramparts of the Bohai settlements of Primorye, as a rule, are stone-soil with external stone facing. Their construction according to the Khantu method is common for the late Jurchen hillforts of Primorye, in particular for the settlements of the Eastern Xia. There are features in the typical composition of the ceramic material of the Krasnoe Ozero hillfort. In addition to the Mohe stucco ceramics and tape handles from Bohai pots, the Bohai layer included the fragments of gray clay circular ceramics with blackened outer surface and stamped ornament on the body. Blackening the external surface of vessels is typical for the ceramics of the coastal Jurchen, and stamped ornament for the ceramics of the Amur Jurchen. Grey clay circular ceramics of the Amur Jurchen is related to Chinese pottery. The Bohai ceramics was influenced by the Goguryeo pottery especially at an early stage of the development of the state. It was connected with the military, political and economic situation in the Far East.
Keywords: Mohe, Bohai, Jurchen, Primorye, stratigraphy, culture, fortification, ceramics.
Vladimir Shavkunov, Institute of History, Archaeology and Ethnography of the Peoples of the Far East, FEB RAS, Vladivostok, Russia. E-mail: vshavkunov@yandex.ru.
The Aurovskoye settlement is located on a mountain ridge and has a good strategic position. The valley of the river Muraveyka is clearly visible from its territory. The site is three-layered, but its ramparts were constructed by the late population of the Bohai people in the early tenth century. It was a militarily alarming time, therefore, for protection, they selected a hard-to-reach place with a flowing stream nearby. In addition, the dwellings had underground cold rooms for long-term storage of food. Another feature of the location of the fortress was that there was a steep cleft in the stone base of the ridge with the underground passage which led to the city walls. The ridge divided the territory of the settlement into three parts. The ramparts of the settlement were made of stone and three gates were built in them, one in each part. The roads, which were along the ramparts, approached all the gates. As a result, the most convenient approaches to the city were carefully controlled by the defenders. The Bohai builders used one more innovation in the fortification. The western rampart of the city was quite far from the steep slope and led to the ravine. Then the rampart did a sharp bend narrowing the road twice to the gate. Thus, commotion and confusion were created during the attack of the enemy in this direction. Ancient strategists chose a successful place for arrangement of the city and carefully planned the variants of its protection and standing a sustained siege.
Keywords: Aurovskoye settlement, fortification, hard-to-reach place, ramparts, roads, gates, underground storage.
Nadezhda Artemeva, Institute of History, Archaeology and Ethnography of the Peoples of the Far East, FEB RAS, Vladivostok, Russia. E-mail: artemieva_tg@list.ru.
The article is dedicated to new results of the archaeological research conducted on the territory of Batyuki the site dated back to the Yuan Dynasty in Primorye. The study of its inner topography and stratigraphy as well as the research of a living unit revealed a range of specific features in systems of housebuilding and internal residential development. The excavations took place on the area of the single-room walled living unit with a kang bed-stove. The site is typologically similar to the walled towns of the Yuan period located on the territories of China and Mongolia. There are also no differences in the archeological artifacts that were unearthed there and the ones of the Jurchen sites. This can be explained by the fact that the Jurchen people were one of the first ethnic groups that got involved into the Mongols military campaign. It is known that in 1213 their army numbered 46 detachments consisted of the Jurchens. The most part of the Mongols arms inventory originated from captive nations including the Jurchen people. Therefore, it seems obvious that military groups stationed in Primorye and the Amur River Region were completely manned with the Jurchen people and, as rule, were headed by the Mongolian officials. Until recently, discovering of glazed ceramics (especially the green-coloured ones) and the roofing titles with v-shaped molds and dragon bas-relieves was considered to be the key factor for identification of the Yuan cultural layer in Primorye. However, in our opinion, while age-dating of the site, the most part of scientists attention should be focused on the sites inner topography and fortification system. The further research of the walled town of Batyuki will provide us with new and even more explicit evidences for qualifying it as a site of the Yuan period. Nowadays we must admit that there is a set of features that separate this site from the previously excavated walled towns in Primorye, such as: location of fortification structures, internal building system as well as techniques for constructing the earth rampant.
Keywords: Primorye, Medieval archaeology, the Jin Dynasty, the Eastern Xia State, the Yuan Dynasty, the Jurchens, the Mongols, settlements, fortification, living units, ceramics.
Tatiana Vasileva, Institute of History, Archaeology and Ethnography of the Peoples of the Far East, FEB RAS, Vladivostok, Russia. E-mail: vasiljeva_ta@bk.ru.
The paper analyses the functional purpose of inner cities at Jurchen sites of Primorye. The inner cities were the areas of arbitrary shape inside the settlement fenced with a low earthen wall. There were from one till three of them and each differed according to the function. The palace buildings of the colonnade construction, covered with tiles, were located in the north-eastern inner city of the Shayginskoe walled town (the Partizansky district). It performed administrative functions. The state barns were situated in the south-western inner city of the Shayginskoe walled town. The inner city of the Krasnoyarovskoe walled town (the Ussuriyskiy district) was built with administrative complexes and palace colonnaded buildings. One of the complexes was the chamber of weights. The remains of pottery kilns and furnaces were in the inner city of the Lazovskoe walled town (the Lazovsky district of Primorye). The large barn of the colonnade structure was in the second inner city. The palace buildings of the colonnade construction were at the Nikolaevskoe walled town (the Partizansky district). The northern inner city of the Ekaterinovskoe walled town consisted of administrative buildings. The colonnaded buildings in the south-eastern inner city were public. Sustainable traditions existed in urban building and planning of the Jurchen city throughout the Empire. The research material allows to recreate the image of the Jurchen city and to examine the problem of its functional purpose as well as the individual elements of its development, such as inner cities with well-defined functions. It may be concluded that administrative buildings were in the northern inner cities while public buildings were in the southern inner cities.
Keywords: Primorye, the Jurchens, the Eastern Xia State, inner cities, palace style buildings, colonnaded buildings, barns, administrative complex, public buildings.
Tseveendorj Egiimaa, National Museum of Mongolia, Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia. -mail: egiimaats451@gmail.com.
The Xiongnu was the first most powerful steppe empire which dominated on the territory of Mongolia. The Xiongnu royal tombs and settlement sites occupy a special place among the archaeological monuments of Mongolia. It is a mistake to say that the Xiongnu, who led a nomadic life, had no walled cities and did not know about urban culture. The excavations of the Tereljiin durvuljiin and Gua dov sites gave new information about the unique settlement patterns of the Xiongnu. The Mongolian archaeologist H. Perlee made a significant contribution to the studies of the Xiongnu settlements and also drew a general picture of the urban culture of nomads. Major excavations were carried out by H. Perlee at the Xiongnu sites. Currently, 16 settlement sites of the Xiongnu period have been found in Mongolia. The Mongolian-Russian project led the excavations at the site of Tereljiyn Durvulzhin. The Mongolian-Korean project Mont-Sol undertook research on the Xiongnu settlement of Gua dov. During the excavations of these sites, much data was found which gave a preliminary idea of the construction and architecture. Both sites were surrounded by the fortifications with buildings with clay walls, roofing tiles and decorated with beautiful ornamented eave-tiles with floral, geometric motifs as well as tamgas. On the eave-tiles of the Xiongnu settlements there is no decor matching the Han Chinese eave-tiles. A large number of eave-tiles with tamgas from the excavations of the Tereljijn durvuljin site give us an idea that the fortification/memorial monument was built for the Xiongnu high-ranking nobility, who owned this tamga. Gua dov was not a place for religious or ritual rites. Gua dov was an ancient settlement surrounded by walls with beautiful gates and a double-slope roof where there was a large residence with a beautiful tiled roof.
Keywords: Xiongnu, ancient settlements, Tereljijn durvuljin, Gua dov, roof tiles, eave-tiles, memorial monument, residence.
Aleksej Sorokin, Institute of Archaeology RAS, Moscow, Russia. E-mail: ansorokin@rambler.ru.
Based on the analysis of the dates obtained for the sites of the Zander zone of Eurasia, the article considers some aspects of the dependence of the results of radiocarbon dating on the natural processes of humification and carbonization, that are directly expressed in the phenomenon of long chronology of materials of geoarchaeological objects. The analysis of a sample of the original radiocarbon data and the nature of natural processes, which involved all geo-archeological objects, leads to the conclusion about the inevitability for the settlements of an open type of the effect of stretching the chronology and uncertainty of the time boundaries of archaeological cultures. Natural processes are objective, global and comprehensive, they are independent of human will. Some results of natural phenomena are indistinguishable from traces of human activity. This fact constantly leads to standard errors of perception of certain archaeologically observed natural phenomena, and the globality of natural cycles also produces their mass in the direct perception of the field researcher. One of such phenomena, standardly leading to incorrect reconstructions and curvature of the age of radiocarbon samples, are still very poorly studied phenomena of humification and carbonization. Short chronology of antiquities can be realized only in the study of multi-layered objects, different layers in which are clamped in a relatively narrow time frame with a high rate of sedimentation.
Keywords: geoarchaeology, according to geo-archeological objects, outwash area, radiocarbon analysis, the phenomena of humification and carbonization.
Vladislav Shevchenko, Institute of History, Archaeology and Ethnography of the Peoples of the Far East, FEB RAS, Vladivostok, Russia. E-mail: shevchenkohist@mail.ru.
The article is devoted to the problem of wheeled transport in Primorye. The classification of cast-iron wheel bushings of the cart has been developed. A comparative analysis is carried out with the same items from the capital of the ancient Mongols the city of Karakorum. Ancient ways of communication and wheeled transport play a significant role in the research of the development of the territory. 65 years of work of archaeologists of Primorye make it possible to solve the problem of the formation and the development of wheeled transport in the region which hasnt been sufficiently studied. One of the main reasons is the poor safety of the parts of the cart, as they were made of organic materials. However, such parts of the cart wheel as hub bushings were made of cast-iron, so these items have a relatively better safety. Long-term stationary research on the medieval archaeological sites of Primorye, during which cast-iron bushings from the wheel hub were found, confirm the use of wheeled transport by the population. This category of objects remains poorly studied in the Far Eastern archaeology. The author has identified and systematized the cast-iron wheel bushings found on the following sites of the Primorye region: the Shayginsky, Ananyevskoye, Lazovskoye, Krasnoyarovskoye, Kraskinsky hillforts, etc. In Primorye, the evidence of wheeled transport with a cast-iron bushing in the wheel construction was first recorded on the sites of the Bohai culture. This type of bushing is the main one on the sites of the Jurchen culture and other late cultures.
Keywords: wheeled transport, medieval period, Primorye, Bohai, the Jurchens, Karakorum, classification, cast-iron wheel bushings.
Sergej Makievskij, Institute of History, Archaeology and Ethnography of the Peoples of the Far East, FEB RAS, Vladivostok, Russia. E-mail: makievskiy@list.ru.
The paper reveals the results of the research of colonnaded building on the territory of the Novonezhino walled town dating back to the Jurchen Eastern Xia State (12151233). It was constructed on a man-made terrace of a hillside, on the territory of the north-eastern part of the inner city. The north-western and south-eastern sides of the terrace are strengthened with retaining stone walls. The north-eastern and south-western sides are also stabilized with masonry constructions that seem to perform only decorative functions. The remains of the colonnade building are represented by three rows of flat stone bases that were used as column socles. Each row originally consisted of thirteen bases, but up to the present the full sequence has remained only in the central lane. Some bases in the edge rows were destroyed. While researching the territory of the building, the scientists didnt find any signs of either a roof cladding or a heating system. The archeological research of the building resulted in gathering some burnt fragments of clay daub. They were identified as the remains of a smelt-furnace located on an uphill terrace. The results of this research gave the scientists an opportunity to conclude that the colonnaded building of the Novonezhino site had been used as a storage warehouse and had formed a part of a manufacturing unit with production facilities, warehouses and an administrative building.
Keywords: Primorye, the Eastern Xia State, the Jurchens, walled towns, medieval architecture, colonnaded building, internal town planning.
Alexander Krupyanko, Scientific Production Centre of the Historical and Cultural Expertise limited liability company, Vladivostok, Russia. E-mail: krup1964@mail.ru.
Elena Sidorenko, Institute of History, Archaeology and Ethnography of the Peoples of the Far East, FEB RAS, Vladivostok, Russia. E-mail: sidoriha3@yandex.ru.
The basin of the river Zerkalnaya (Kovalerovsky District, Primorsky Region) as a structure of archaeological and geological system of the Eastern Sikhote-Alin impresses the researchers of the ancient history with new discoveries. Despite a high level of archaeological studies of the Zerkalnaya valley, every field season offers new archaeological finds, which give an opportunity to reconsider argumentative schemes of the settlement and development of the territory. Such discoveries are often made by chance, but after careful examination they are appropriately placed in the schemes. The paper is devoted to the scientific description and analysis of the collection of artifacts consisting of fragments of moulded ceramic vessels and a small number of stone wares. These artifacts were collected by the inhabitant at his private garden place in the Suvorovo village in 2015. A small composition of the collection is completely compensated with specific features of the archaeological material. The information gives an opportunity to take a new look on migration, adaptive and intercultural processes of North-Eastern Primorye in the Paleometal age which provided a diverse ethnocultural environment in the taiga and pacific zone in the late second century BC and in the first centuries AD. A strong connection between the complexes of the Lidovskaya culture and the settlements of Western Primorye of the Chernyatino-2 type is revealed. It is supposed that a part of the population with the tradition of decorating pottery with parallel lines joined the representatives of the Lidovskaya culture during their advancement through the central areas of the Primorye Region toward the east coast.
Keywords: Eastern Sikhote-Alin, Zerkalnaya River Valley, Paleometal Age, Lidovskaya archaeological culture, migrations.

HISTORY AND INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS
Jacques Legrand, National Institute of Oriental Languages and Civilizations, Paris, France; International Institute for the Study of Nomadic Civilizations, Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia. E-mail: jacques.legrand@inalco.fr.
The paper describes several elements of nomadic pastoralism in its own logic as well as in its relations with the surrounding cultures. The concept of the common origin of sedentary and nomadic populations and cultures of continental Eurasia and their interactions is proposed. Pastoral nomadism is analysed as an integrated social and historical complex which appeared through the prism of various components: material sphere, ecological conditions, forms of social organization, cognitive, esthetic and mental representations. The process of formation of nomadic way of life on the basis of Neolithic and post-Neolithic settled domestication and the conditions for the development of the new economic and public system through dispersion of population into small units are briefly described. The consequences of this process and the creation of an original socio-political order and a new, specifically nomadic culture are considered. It is concluded that pastoral nomadism is a part of the heritage of Neolithic revolution and an inseparable element of the large continental civilizational and cultural complex connected with common patrimony. The research of general and unique features of pastoral nomadism can enhance the understanding of some aspects of the social and economic development of modern world.
Keywords: nomads, Mongolia, settling, dispersion, pressure on resources, cattle breeding, pasture.
Sergey Bandilet, Far Eastern Federal University, Vladivostok, Russia. E-mail: khaliff93@mail.ru.
This paper is devoted to the perception of the October Revolution and the Russian Civil War by the members of the Canadian House of Commons. It is based on the materials of parliamentary debates which were posted on the official website of the Parliament of Canada. The political reaction on the events of 19171919 in Russia is compared and analyzed. The members of different political parties treated Russian events differently. The Unionist party, which was a ruling political force, reacted to the Bolshevik Revolution very sharply. The Unionists did not support many aspects of the Bolshevik governments domestic policy (proletarian dictatorship, restriction of electoral rights, the separation of Church and State, repressions), as well as foreign policy (annulation of international commitments, the Peace Treaty of Brest-Litovsk). The attitude of the representatives of the Liberal Party, the main oppositional force, was more tolerant. The Liberals sympathized with certain aspects of the social policy of the Bolsheviks (the fight against illiteracy and creation of social justice in the society). Special attention is paid to the split in the Canadian Parliament in 1918, when Canada and its leader R. Borden joined the intervention against the Bolsheviks. Some members of the conservative wing of the Unionist party supported the intervention, but other members of the ruling party and the Liberals opposed it. An emphasis is put on the social and economic factors as well as internal political reasons which forced the Bordens government to withdraw the troops from Russia and reconsider its attitude toward Russia. This was the beginning of the recognition of the Soviet Government by Canada and the establishment of diplomatic relations between the countries.
Keywords: Canada, October Revolution, Civil War in Russia, parliament.
Evgeny Kanaev, Center for Asia-Pacific Studies, IMEMO RAS, Moscow, Russia. E-mail: e.a.kanaev@gmail.com.
The paper aims at distinguishing the specificity of the current Russian-Vietnamese relationship codified as the comprehensive strategic partnership. The academic novelty of the paper accounts for specifying the degree of this codification through the prism of theoretical and practical issues of cooperation between Russia and Vietnam stemming from its specificity. Russias and Vietnams possibilities to coordinate prospective planning with relevance to the mega-projects the Greater Eurasian Partnership and the Indo-Pacific Region are defined. The author uncovers the reasons why the priorities of Russia and Vietnam concerning these projects are drifting apart and why this may intensify in the future. The state and prospects of economic cooperation between Russia and Vietnam are assessed, the key factors behind the lack of congruence between the status of relationship and the obtained results are considered. Special attention is paid to the readiness of Russian business to operate in Vietnam with the support of mechanisms of the EAEU-SRV Free Trade Agreement. The key strategic directions and tactical measures for making the growth of the Russian-Vietnamese trade sustainable are distinguished. The author argues that the term comprehensive strategic partnership impedes rather than contributes to the development of the Russia-Vietnam relationship based upon a competent and nuanced approach to its possibilities and limitations. Furthermore, it misinforms Moscow and Hanoi disabling them to make a proper assessment of each others priorities and of the real rather than declaratory potential of the resources in their disposal.
Keywords: Russia, Vietnam, Comprehensive Strategic Partnership, the Greater Eurasia, the Indo-Pacific Region, economic cooperation.
Oleg Tarasov, Khabarovsk Institute of Infocommunications, Khabarovsk, Russia. E-mail: oltar-1972@mail.ru.
The main goal of the paper is to study the Far Eastern geographical names of the settlements associated with the names of historical personalities. A full range of names of cities, villages, communities and settlements is analyzed, possessive toponyms referring to the names of military and political figures, members of the royal family and prominent officials of the Far East are identified. An important feature of the study is the demonstration of the geographical names of the settlements which reflect almost all stages of the development of the Russian Far East from the pioneers to the present day. Moreover, the examples from all regions of the Far Eastern Federal district are presented: the Amur Region, the Magadan region, the Kamchatka Region, the Khabarovsk Region, the Primorsky Region, etc. The analysis revealed the main regional peculiarities of the names of the settlements and the objective factors that were not typical for the regions of the early settlement. The results of the work can be used to conduct similar scientific research on other regions. The author applied both personal methodological research (level method, historical and cultural classification) and methods which were previously used in toponymy (isoglossarial method and historical chronological approach).
Keywords: place-names, nominal geographical names in the Far East, peculiarities of naming and preservation of geographical names, history of the development of the areas of late settlement.
Olga Ustyugova, Institute of History, Archaeology and Ethnography of the Peoples of the Far East, FEB RAS, Vladivostok, Russia. E-mail: ustyugova75@mail.ru.
The paper deals with the state policy on the development of salt extraction in the Russian Far East in the second half of the nineteenth century at the beginning of the twentieth century. At that time, the region was mainly supplied with foreign salt, as the delivery of cheap but low-quality salt from Transbaikalia was expensive. Salt was obtained by the evaporation from sea water by the Chinese and Koreans along the seaside of the Primorye region and by the Russians on the island of Sakhalin. However, such production required considerable labor and fuel costs, made a product of poor quality and in insufficient quantity. The region was in high demand for salt as raw material for the fishing industry and one of the essential goods. Because of high dependence on the import, the authorities were in need of supplying the local population with salt by its extraction in the Far East of Russia. Three ways of solving this problem were found: to establish salt extraction by supporting Chinese salt-works; to search and develop salt deposits in the region; to increase the volume of supplies from the Irkutsk salt plant with preliminary technical improvement of its production.
Keywords: Russian Far East, Eastern Siberia, salt deposits, salt extraction, salt-works, supply.

SCIENTIFIC CHRONICLE
L.I. Gallyamova. The Civil War and Intervention in the Russian Far East: on the 100th Anniversary of the Start of the Civil War in Russia (International Scientific Conference)

REVIEWS
Tatiana Yaroslavtseva, Far-Eastern Institute of Management branch of The Russian Academy of National Economy and Public Service by the President of the Russian Federation, Khabarovsk, Russia. E-mail: mu322@mail.ru.
Avgustina Drobnitsa, Far-Eastern Institute of Management branch of The Russian Academy of National Economy and Public Service by the President of the Russian Federation, Khabarovsk, Russia. E-mail: avvadr@mail.ru.
A number of authors discussed scientific concepts, characteristic features, approaches to assessing the consequences of radical market reforms, the implementation results of the plans for the development of the region and the problems of strategy generation for the development of the Far East on the pages of the scientific journal Historical and Socio-Educational Thought for 2018 in the format of a special section The Far East in Russian History: the End of the Twentieth the Beginning of the Twenty-First Centuries. In their works the historians N.F. Bugai, A.S. Vashchuk, E.N. Chernolutskaya, E.S. Volkova, V.G. Petrovich, S.I. Samsonova, A.E. Savchenko, V.L. Larin, S.K. Pestsov , A.B. Volynchuk and E.G. Garbuzarova view the region of the Far East in a broad socio-cultural and economic context based on a combination of different research strategies. This is a new way of reproducing sociality and assessing social integration, and these strategies also lead to the formation of new ways of scientific representation. The authors contribution to historical science made certain social perspectives accessible for scientific analysis, which were not taken into consideration in other approaches. That makes it possible to abandon a priori constructions and look at the social order as a mobile, open process related to the relevant stage of the historical development of the Far East. In modern historical science, there has been developed an approach to the study of historical heritage without any ideological and political underlying reason for the analysis of categories that directly characterize the life of the country, a particular region and an individual. The cross-cutting theme of the entire section is the evaluation of specific factors of the historical process of the development of the Far East, as well as the preservation of the demographic potential in the Far Eastern outskirts of Russia.
Keywords: Far East, Asia-Pacific Region, socio-political situation, interethnic relations, Far Eastern realities, life after reforms, daily life, the paradigm of regional policy, program approach, interdisciplinary works, information and analytical capital.

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