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IDEOLOGY AND PROBLEMS OF SELF-IDENTIFICATION: RUSSIAS HISTORICAL EXPERIENCE AND CIVILIZATIONAL PECULIARITIES

Fedirko O.P., Krayushkina T.V. Preface
Andrey Popovkin, Institute of History, Archaeology and Ethnology of the Peoples of the Far East, FEB RAS, Vladivostok, Russia. E-mail: popovkin-av@yandex.ru.
Maxim Bulanenko, Institute of History, Archaeology and Ethnology of the Peoples of the Far East, FEB RAS, Vladivostok, Russia. E-mail: bulanenko@list.ru
The paper deals with two questions: whether patriotism can become a new Russian ideology and, if so, what it should be. To answer these questions, the concept of patriotism is clarified. First, the point of view is substantiated that it is not just a feeling of love and care for the motherland but also a set of certain value beliefs. Further research is based on the ideas of one of the most influential apologists for patriotism in the history of Russian thought I.A.Ilyin, which allow to overcome the objections to patriotism from L.N. Tolstoy. In addition, an important question for many people is considered whether patriotism limits the freedom of the individual. For this purpose, a distinction is introduced between two fundamentally different spiritual attitudes of the individual: spiritual autonomy and spiritual self-determination. Accordingly, three types of patriotism are distinguished: bene-patriotism, appropriating patriotism and the Socratic type of patriotism. The latter is beneficial for society and desirable as a new Russian ideology. The forms of assimilation of patriotic beliefs are examined. It is concluded that patriotism can become a new Russian ideology, but in order to be accepted and assimilated by society, it should be based on values that reflect the spiritual identity of Russia and express the spiritual character of its people.
Keywords: patriotism, ideology, Russian philosophy, Russian culture, spiritual values.
Alexander Isaev, Far Eastern Federal University, Vladivostok, Russia. E-mail: isaev.aa@dvfu.ru.
Oksana Fedirko, Institute of History, Archaeology and Ethnology of the Peoples of the Far East, FEB RAS, Vladivostok, Russia. E-mail: fedirko@ihaefe.ru.
The paper is devoted to the study of theoretical aspects of the problem of political and ideological interaction between government and society on the example of the Far East of the USSR in the 1930s. The authors have identified the main structural elements that form the system of such interaction. It is revealed that this interaction is the most important process that determines the correlation of the ideological orientations of its actors and their views on the principles of the countrys development in a specific historical period. Therefore, the purpose of this paper is to analyze the process of political and ideological interaction between government and society from historical, sociological philosophical, politological and psychological positions. The realization of this goal is possible only by considering the stated process through a direct connection with the events and phenomena of everyday life in the Far East of the USSR in the 1930s illustrating the theoretical calculations. The peculiarities of political and ideological interaction both in the country and in the Far Eastern region were directly related to the specifics of the formation of the population and to the special approach of the power structures in the implementation of certain socio-economic and political measures. It is proved that many features of political and ideological interaction were caused by the difference of views of its actors. The illusory ideological message of the authorities did not always reflect the demands of the society, which made it difficult to reach a compromise between their ideological and political views. The authorities tried to solve this problem by strengthening the political and ideological impact on the population and by using all visual and verbal means. At the same time, there was an active inclusion of the relevant assistants of the authorities (manipulators) from the people, who introduced the attitudes of power directly within society. However, despite this, many problems that hindered the effective development of political and ideological relations between government and society were insurmountable.
Keywords: political and ideological interaction, society, government, ideology, the Far East
Pavel Ushanov, Vladivostok State University, Vladivostok, Russia. E-mail: ushanov08@mail.ru.
The paper considers the Russian-language political blogosphere as a product of the mutual influence of the traditions of national public social communication and new technological possibilities for creating content. Describing the evolution of public social communication, emphasis is placed on the fact that in the 19th century the European mass media system created models of media business projects while in Russia the main heritage is works of art and journalism. The paper emphasizes the role of F.M.Dostoevsky in the formation of such form of communication work as blogging. The paper characterizes the blogosphere as a space for the formation of ideas and meanings, highlights the technological features of blogging and the stages of its formation. The paper highlights the factor that influenced the rapid formation of the Russian-speaking blogospherea high degree of ideological discussion in the expert community of the Russian Federation in the 2000s among supporters of all forms of political consciousness. Over the past 17 years, the Russian political blogosphere has gone through the following stages: extensive growth, legalization, legitimation. At the moment, the fourth stage is developing structuring according to ideological guidelines. The author highlights the changes that have emerged in the Russian blogging since the beginning of the Special Military Operation in Ukraine: active participation in creating the news agenda, the formation of a new type of a non-mass blog, which is focused on public opinion leaders (bloggers, journalists) and is characterized by an underlined ideological involvement.
Keywords: political communication, blogosphere, blogging, ideological discussion.
Denis Sosunov, Voronezh State University, Voronezh, Russia. E-mail: den_sosunov@mail.ru.
Dmitry Zaviryukhin, Voronezh State University, Voronezh, Russia. E-mail: dima_zav.bgr@mail.ru.
The paper is an attempt to identify the dynamics of political self-identification among Russian youth between 2019 and 2023. Nowadays the young generation begins to engage in socio-political processes and the preservation of the status quo depends on their ability to integrate into political life on the basis of the rules of the game established by the political elite. Consequently, tracking changes in the political identity of young people and their perceptions of their place in the countrys political system is important in the context of goal-setting and political agenda. There are changes in young peoples perceptions of Russias role and its place in the world. The paper provides a content analysis of strategic documents proposed by the political leadership of the country, which allows us to correlate the expectations of young people with the official discourse of the authorities. The discrepancy is revealed between the ideas of young people about the future and the political elite due to the fact that among the majority of young people there is a demand for a socially oriented state and minimal participation in foreign policy. This has led to problems in young peoples political self-identification: paternalism and a low level of identification with society. The paper noted that there are prerequisites for qualitative transformation in young peoples political self-identification which makes it possible to overcome deep problems in the interaction between the government and society.
Keywords: political self-identification, youth, political agenda, image of Russias future
Olga Shimanskaya, The Institute of Europe of the Russian Academy of Sciences (IE RAS), Moscow, Russia. E-mail: shimansk@mail.ru.
Denis Kolesov, The Institute of Europe of the Russian Academy of Sciences (IE RAS), Moscow, Russia. E-mail: deniskolesov@gmail.com.
The paper analyses the representation of the memory of the Great Patriotic War in a modern Russian museum based on the example of the museum complex Memory Lane. The study is based on an integrated approach to critical discourse analysis. The museum complex is considered within the framework of the transformation of public museums into post-museums and the formation of museums of memory as a kind of historical museums aimed at commemoration and representation of events as well as the transfer of emotional experience in contrast to the transfer of knowledge inherent in a public museum. The paper describes the development of memory museums in Russia and their conceptualization within the framework of museology, cultural studies, public history and memory studies. The study discusses modern forms of military history museums and museums of memory in Russia as well as controversial issues of their functioning. The museum complex Memory Lane is considered in the context of transformations of museums into post-museums and the collective memory of the Great Patriotic War in Russian society. The paper pays attention to spaces of participation, instrumentalization of family and individual memories, acquisition of emotional experience, immersiveness and the use of new technologies. The structure of the museum, the means of exposure, the self-presentation of the museum and the virtual museum are also considered. The study reveals the characteristics of the modern military history museum and its relationship with the museum of memory. The modern museum is trying to resolve the conflict between authenticity and reliability, objectivity and reconstruction, history and memory. Instead of the democratic experience, the museum narrative can only be deciphered in the context of the general politics of memory as the museum itself does not form the content, and its activity depends on external specialist interpreters.
Keywords: post-museum, military history museum, museum of memory, museum complex, Memory Lane, immersiveness, discourse analysis, collective memory, politics of memory, affect.
Natalya Potapova,Sakhalin State University, Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk, Russia. E-mail: napotapova@yandex.ru.
The paper is devoted to the study of the ethnic self-identification of the population of the Sakhalin region between the late twentieth and the early twenty-first centuries. Ethnic processes on the territory of the Sakhalin region are studied in close connection with the peculiarities of migration processes during the post-Soviet transformation and up to the present time from the point of view of their influence on the peculiarities of self-identification of various ethnic groups. The stages of transformation of the national structure of the population, their features, new trends affecting the development of the ethnic situation are revealed: depopulation, deslavianization, the departure of part of the Korean population to their historical homeland, later, due to labor migration, the rapid growth of the Kyrgyz, Uzbek, Tajik diasporas, the increase of Azerbaijani and Armenian diasporas. The preservation of traditional features of the ethnic space of the region is notedthe largest share of the Russian population, a relatively stable Korean diaspora, the preservation of the number of indigenous peoples, the ethnic diversity of the population in general. The paper reveals the processes of self-identification of residents that are important for the formation of a new ethnic situation in the region, associated with widespread dual ethnicity, the replacement of ethnic identity with civil identity, and the consolidation of diasporas. It is pointed out that diasporas formed from Russian citizens (Korean, Tatar, Dagestani, etc.) are focused on preserving cultural and religious traditions; the Azerbaijani and Armenian diasporas, relatively old, are replenished mainly by migrants who speak Russian well and their representatives are mostly Russian citizens now. The Tajik, Uzbek, and Kyrgyz diasporas, while preserving their identity, radically differ from the dominant population of the Sakhalin region in linguistic, cultural, and religious aspects, which complicates their integration in the region. The paper gives the data of sociological studies confirming the identified trends in the development of the ethnic situation and the peculiarities of the ethnic identity of the population of the Sakhalin region.
Keywords: ethnic self-identification, Sakhalin region, diaspora, migration, civic identity.
Lidiya Fetisova, Institute of History, Archaeology and Ethnology of the Peoples of the Far East, FEB RAS, Vladivostok, Russia. E-mail: fetisova.lidie@yandex.ru.
The paper is devoted to the analysis of sociocultural values recorded in the oral tradition of the indigenous peoples of the Russian Far East. Mutual assistance, adoption, hospitality are distinguished among the traditional values. It is noted that adherence to these axiological attitudes was to ensure the integrity of the community and to emphasize its originality in a foreign ethnic environment. First of all, the most ancient folklore motif was considered: the search and distribution of food. It is emphasized that the collective condemnation of the individual consumption of fishery products was based on archaic philosophical and ideological ideas, according to which the gifts of nature were sent to people from above and therefore were not the property of a person. The same principles were put in the basis of ancient hospitality. Along with the identification of mythopoetic constants in folklore, the transformation of ancient value attitudes under the influence of changes in the socio-economic sphere was shown. At the same time, it was pointed out that the new relations did not receive the status of spiritual and moral values. Particular attention is paid to the law of blood feud, which also performed ethno-integrating and ethnodifferentiating functions in the past but over time was rethought and lost its prescriptive character. However, it remained the leading motif in the plot of the heroic epic. Thus, it was concluded that indigenous folklore reflected both stability and transformation of ancient axiological attitudes, which in the past were realized in the form of mutual assistance, hospitality, adoption, and blood feud
Keywords: indigenous peoples of the Russian Far East, socio-cultural values, mutual assistance, adoption, hospitality, blood feud.
Galina Andriets, Institute of History, Archaeology and Ethnology of the Peoples of the Far East, FEB RAS, Vladivostok, Russia. E-mail: andriets2005@list.ru.
The paper examines the cultural activities of the Far Eastern intelligentsia as spiritual and value orientations in the daily leisure culture of the cities in the south of the Russian Far East between the second half of the 19th century and the early 20th century. It is noted that the rapid growth of the cities was one of the features of the socio-economic and cultural development of the Far Eastern region during this period. The nature of urban everyday life was significantly influenced by representatives of the intellectual elite. The leading role belonged to the military as the most educated group of Russian people. It is determined that the professional cultural niche was filled by local amateur forces, initially consisting almost exclusively of military and civilian officials and their family members. The high level of social and cultural life of the Far Eastern cities was set by the Amur governors-general and their wives, which made it possible to form certain ideological attitudes of the Far Eastern society with spiritual and moral values, cultural traditions and customs. It is revealed that peoples abilities to self-improvement and self-development of their spiritually significant values led to the unification of local creative forces into amateur socio-cultural organizations, which activities increased the cultural and educational orientation significantly over time. It is emphasized that the leading people of that time were distinguished by the desire to faithfully serve the Fatherland, to care for the development and prosperity of the Far East. High ideas united military and civil officials, officers, merchants in a common cultural space. The author concludes that the desire of the urban elite to unite in creative communities had a positive impact on the development of the spiritual culture of the region
Keywords: Far East, intelligentsia, leisure culture, spiritual values, cultural activities, traditions.
Tatyana Krayushkina, Institute of History, Archaeology and Ethnology of the Peoples of the Far East, FEB RAS, Vladivostok, Russia. E-mail: kvtbp@mail.ru.
Based on the songs of the period of the Civil War, recorded on the territory of Siberia and the Far East in 19181976 and originated from folklore sources and authors poetry, the spiritual values are studied in the light of ideology which are attributed by the representatives of the Red movement to the White Guards. The assumption is made about the change in the archetypal principle of the organization of the world: the categories us and them are renewed under the influence of ideological principles. It was revealed that the complex of representations of spiritual values attributed to the Whites is diametrically opposed to the complex of spiritual values of the Reds. Its main components are Motherland, the native land claimed by the Whites, destruction of life (violation of health, integrity of the body, inviolability of the body) of the representatives of the Red movement and members of their families, life and family of the Whites, imprisonment, physical violence against prisoners and execution, private property (the seizure or destruction of property significant for maintaining the life of the family of the Reds). The values that were attributed to the Whites generally related to the physical destruction of the world of the Reds (with the deprivation of territory, life, life support). The White Guards as bearers of already different values are denied the right to be their own. They become strangers. Conclusions are drawn about the active introduction of alien values into the peoples consciousness by educated representatives of society, who, as a rule, belonged to other social classes. The processes of development and interaction of folk art and fiction were actively used by the representatives of the Red movement in order to introduce the new ideology into the system of traditional spiritual and moral values.
Keywords: folklore, songs of the Civil War, spiritual values, us and them, ideology, White Guards, Civil War, Siberia, Far East.
Elena Kirillova, Institute of History, Archaeology and Ethnology of the Peoples of the Far East, FEB RAS, Vladivostok, Russia. E-mail: sevia@rambler.ru.
The paper represents the first part of a large study devoted to the analysis of one of the directions of poetry of 19171922 in the Far East of Russiacivilian lyrics. The history of the development of literature in the region reflected the general patterns of the literary process of that time. It proceeded in the conditions of the fierce war and prolonged foreign intervention, under the influence of the traditions of Russian classics and in defiance of the dogmas of regionalism. The ideological and thematic content of the poetry of this period is presented through the analysis of its genre and style diversity and based on the work of Konstantin Leontyevich Rosly (1898, village Peretino, Primorye Region 1926, Ust-Olyutorka, Kamchatka). According to the recollections of eyewitnesses of that time, the popularity of the Far Eastern poet and commander, who is traditionally ranked among the representatives of partisan poetry, was extraordinary among the population of Primorye. Reflections and conclusions are based on the authors already forgotten or little-known works today. The genre diversity of civilian poetry of those years is represented by slogans, agitations, appeals, military historical, marching, patriotic songs. The analysis of K.L. Roslys creative searches and experiments complements this palette with the following genres: poems with elements of the tale, folk songs, chants, expectations, elegies, ditties, hymns, small satires, appeals, letters, songs of lament, obituary songs, requiems, ballads, etc. In this paper it is possible to examine only some listed genre forms. The references included the most complete bibliography on the fate and creative searches of the Far Eastern partisan poet. The work is based on the materials of the State Archive of the Primorye Region, the Russian State Historical Archive of the Far East, the Khabarovsk Regional Museum named after N.I. Grodekov. Various materials of the early 1920s from the personal archive of the author were also used: poetry collections, fragments of publications from Far Eastern periodicals (newspapers, magazines, almanacs), critical reviews of writers, memories of eyewitnesses of those years.
Keywords: genres of Far Eastern poetry, poetry of the period of the Civil War and intervention, partisan poets, K. Rosly
Elena Volkova, Institute of History, Archaeology and Ethnology of the Peoples of the Far East, FEB RAS, Vladivostok, Russia. E-mail: elenavolkova1@yandex.ru.
Based on the analysis of works of literature and visual arts by Russian Far Eastern authors, the paper examines the identity crisis experienced by Russian citizens as a result of the collapse of the USSR and radical market reforms. The author considers the product of artwork as an important historical source reflecting social processes in a generalized symbolic form. It is established that during the period of reforms many heroes feel disorientation, painfully experience the loss of their former statuses, lose confidence in the future, life goals become uncertain, identification with macro-generalities becomes difficult. The collapse of the Soviet state, which had occupied the main place in the hierarchy of identities, was an extremely painful loss for new Russians there was nothing to replace it. In the absence of a unified state ideology, the heroes make attempts to identify themselves with various national, political, religious, generational, professional and other communities, but these attempts do not always lead to the desired result. Distrust of the authorities, based on the results of market reforms, significantly slow down the formation of a new state-civil identity. The rapid differentiation in income and consumption and the deep value disintegration of society leads to the growing conflict. In general, in the new social reality, self-identification turns into an endless process as a source of anxiety and insecurity.
Keywords: Russian Far East, the collapse of the USSR, market reforms, 1990s, identity crisis, fiction, visual art.

REVIEWS

Vitaliy Zelyak, Novosibirsk State Pedagogical University, Novosibirsk, Russia. E-mail: zelyak75@mail.ru.
The paper is a review of the collective monograph Historical Dynamics of Social Risks and Threats in the Far Eastern Periphery of Russia in 19912020 (Vladivostok, 2023). The main thematic units of the publication are analyzed: The emergence of social risks and threats in the Far Eastern periphery during the period of systemic reforms in Russia (1990s), The dynamics of social threats and risks in the first twenty years of the 21st century, State programs of demographic development and migration regulation in the Far Eastern Federal District: planning and results. The monograph examines the most important problems of the historical development of the Far East by the early 2020s. The research team has made a significant contribution to the historiography of the Russian Far East. The significance of the publication is of considerable interest to scientists, students, state and municipal officials and a wide range of readers interested in regional aspects of history, political science, sociology and economics of the Russian Far East. The attention is drawn to the scientific and civic courage of the research team in studying the latest historical processes, whose contemporaries are both historians and researchers themselves as well as readers. The author of the review concludes that the monograph is a historical work of great importance performed at a high professional level. Furthermore, the study of the problems of modern history of the Far Eastern region by the staff of the Department of SocioPolitical Research of the Institute of History, Archaeology and Ethnology of the Peoples of the Far East of the Far Eastern Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences has become a stable scientific tradition.
Keywords: review, Russian Far East, security, demography, migration.

OVERVIEWS

Valeriy Tokmakov, Amur State Medical Academy, Blagoveshchensk. E-mail: tokmakov_valeriyy@rambler.ru.
The paper provides a bibliographical overview of the publications of CJSC Amur Fair which includes more than 40 books published in the period between 2006 and 2021. The editorial project was launched on the initiative and under the supervision of the General Director of Amur Fair A.V.Telyuk. Local historians, university professors, and journalists were among the authors of the publications. The first book series Blagoveshchensk. From Century to Century was timed to the 150th anniversary of Blagoveshchensk. In 2008, on the threshold of the 150th anniversary of the formation of the Amur region, a new series Amur Region. From Century to Century started, which continued and developed the research topics ofthe previous series. Most ofthe books are collections of documents and materials, reference books, journalistic publications. The series included various publications: prose works and collections of poetry, chronicles of modern events, etc. The paper focuses on local history works. More than 20 publications are mentioned and analyzed. The published works made rare official and unofficial sources available to the public and eliminated a significant gap in the publications on regional history. Despite the lack of academic character of the printed books, they significantly enriched the regional historiography with new data. The book publishing activity of CJSC Amur Fair has become a part of a large work on the revival of the historical and cultural heritage of the region, which continues to the present day
Keywords: historiography, regional historiography, bibliography, local history, historical and cultural heritage, Amur Fair, Blagoveshchensk, the Amur region, the Amur River region, the Far East.

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