RUSSIA AND COUNTRIES OF THE WORLD: PROBLEMS OF MUTUAL PERCEPTIONS THROUGH THE LENS OF POLITICS AND CULTURE
V.L. Larin, L.L. Larina. Changing Images of East Asia in the Minds of the Inhabitants of Pacific Russia: Features of Recent Years
Viktor Larin, Institute of History, Archaeology and Ethnology of the Peoples of the Far East, FEB RAS, Vladivostok, Russia. E-mail: email@example.com.
Liliia Larina, Institute of History, Archaeology and Ethnology of the Peoples of the Far East, FEB RAS, Vladivostok, Russia. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
The paper represents an analytical generalization of the results of three sociological surveys conducted by the Laboratory for Public Opinion Studies of the Institute of History, Archaeology and Ethnology of the Peoples of the Far East on the territory of the Far Eastern Federal District between 2017 and 2019 and devoted to the perception of foreign countries, primarily of the neighboring states of Pacific Asia by the residents of the region. The authors highlight both some unshakable assessments that have been given by the inhabitants of Pacific Russia for many years and variable values that have arisen under the influence of Russian and international events in recent years. Some territorial, gender and age specificities of the survey results are noted. Comparisons are made with all-Russian data when it is possible. Particular attention is paid to such aspects as the emotional perception of neighboring countries and their inhabitants, the state and prospects of Russia’s bilateral relations with foreign states, attitudes towards the involvement of these states, primarily China, in the economic development of the Russian Far East, East Asian migration in Russia, an assessment of external threats to the interests and security of Russia in the Pacific region. The authors come to the conclusion that the images of states and nations, which have formed in the minds of people of Pacific Russia, are in many ways limited and contradictory. The changes in the scale, nature and quality of economic, political and humanitarian ties of the Russian Federation and its citizens with these countries certainly affect the existing images, but these processes are going rather slowly. Most of the inhabitants of Pacific Russia remain consciously and subconsciously European-oriented, but at the same time pragmatic considerations — understanding that there is no alternative to economic ties with China, Japan and South Korea — affect their choice of foreign partners for cooperation where China is certainly the main one.
Keywords: East Asia, Pacific Russia, public opinion.
Vitalii Boldyrev, Institute of History, Archaeology and Ethnology of the Peoples of the Far East, FEB RAS, Vladivostok, Russia. E-mail: email@example.com.
The paper is devoted to the image of Russia which was created by the U.S. federal government in the second half of 2010s according to political and party goals. It was revealed that the period between 2014 and 2016 was crucial because the relations between Russia and Western countries deteriorated, but contacts between Moscow and Beijing intensified. The Democratic party of the United States lost the election and tried to justify the defeat by Russian interference. During preparation for the 2020 election both leading political parties used these facts to form the favourable image of Russia. Emphasizing the image of Russian military threat, Donald Trump satisfied interests of the military. In their turn, Republican congressmen and senators used the image of Russia to represent D. Trump as a real fighter for freedom and human rights and to create a negative image of the Democratic opposition. While the Republicans didn’t geographically focus on the image of Russia, the Democrats related it directly to the transatlantic relationship with a particular focus on the issue of Crimea. That was done in order to keep the Ukraine lobby support and to prevent recapturing of the democratic and human rights initiatives by Republican opponents. It is concluded that the specific character of the image of Russia testifies that the Democratic party line is still determined by the events in 2014—2016 while the Republicans mention Russia in terms of the considered political strategy.
Keywords: United States, the image of Russia, Donald Trump, the Congress, foreign policy, election.
Vladimir Kozhevnikov, Institute of History, Archaeology and Ethnology of the Peoples of the Far East, FEB RAS, Vladivostok, Russia. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
The paper analyzes the problem of the formation of the idea about Russia as a northern neighbor in the Japanese society. The 250-year history of the relations between two states full of conflicts and mistrust was the basis for the “Russian complex”. At the first stage of these relations, there was stereotyped perception of Russia as a dangerous neighbor. The Second World War and the participation of the USSR in the war with Japan strengthened the anti-Soviet sentiments of the Japanese for many decades. This was expressed in the so-called collective memory of the Second World War. A group of political factors also played an important role. The campaign about “the Soviet military threat” contributed significantly to the formation of negative ideas about the USSR. The problems of Japanese fishing off the coast of the USSR also influenced the image. The image of the modern Russian Federation was mainly formed in the 1990s. In many ways, it was determined by the fact that Russia did not meet Japan halfway in its demands on the territorial issue that Japan counted on after the collapse of the USSR. In the economic sphere, according to Japanese business, Russia inherited not only the faults of the Soviet state — sluggishness, bureaucracy, etc., but also acquired new ones: criminalization of society, corruption, lawlessness. Thus, in order to improve the image of Russia in Japan, it is necessary, first of all, to become a prosperous country, and then the Japanese perception of Russia will be improved.
Keywords: Russia, Japan, USSR, territorial problem, history of bilateral relations, Russian Federation, economic cooperation.
Elena Goriacheva, Institute of History, Archaeology and Ethnology of the Peoples of the Far East, FEB RAS, Vladivostok, Russia. E-mail: email@example.com.
The paper views the evolution of the perception of Russians in Japanese society in the context of Japan’s changing migration policy. The author highlights the reasons that influenced the change in attitudes towards Russians: the intention to improve the Japanese economy by attracting foreign tourists to mass events, the urgent need for foreign workers because of the lack of personnel caused by demographic problems of Japan, the general recent trend of Japan’s policy to stabilize relations with Russia in order to solve energy and food security problems. Taking into account the negative perception of Russia and Russians in Japan due to historical memory, the author, relying on the data of national polls in Japan, reveals a positive dynamics in the perception of Russians as a result of the consistent policy of Sh. Abe’s cabinets since 2012. Further, the attitude to Russians is analyzed as one of the elements of the attitude towards foreigners in general: both to those who permanently live in Japan and those who are able to come to work to Japan on a temporary contract under the new law on migration. These data demonstrate the growing sympathy of the Japanese for Russians as residents of a neighboring country in the Asia Pacific Region in 2014—2019. It seems that such positive shifts in the perception of Russians are largely due to the complex of measures taken by the Sh. Abe’s government to establish good-neighborly relations with Russia as well as consistent actions of the Russian government aimed at attracting investment, facilitating the visa regime for Japan and encouraging inbound tourism from this country.
Keywords: perception of Russians, public opinion, Russo-Japanese relations, migration, Russia, Japan, Japanese government, Abe’s policy.
Nikolay Goryachev, Institute of History, Archaeology and Ethnology of the Peoples of the Far-East, FEB RAS, Vladivostok, Russia. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
The paper examines the dynamics of changes in the perception of Russia in Latin and Central America between 2015 and 2018. The author has analyzed the nature and highlighted the probable causal relationships of the change in the attitude of the region’s residents to Russia depending on the age of the respondents during this period of time. The trends in public opinion were determined by different reasons: for some countries, the flow of tourists from Russia played an important role (its changes affected the perception of Russia). For others, the basis for the formation of public opinion was humanitarian aid from the Russian authorities for overcoming the consequences of natural disasters. Such significant football events in Russia as the Confederations Cup in 2017 and the final part of the World Cup in 2018 had a significant positive impact primarily on those countries whose national teams took part in them. It is noted that the initial predominance of negative attitudes to Russia in the older age group was a consequence of the collapse of the USSR, the loss of confidence in Russia both from the authorities and from the people, i.e. the generation of respondents who saw the period of active ties with the USSR. However, young people form their opinion about Russia from the point of view of current events. The author concludes that the formation of the image of Russia in the countries of the region was more influenced by humanitarian operations and world-class sports events than by foreign policy and related processes.
Keywords: Russia, Latin America, perception, public opinion, collapse of the USSR.
V.L. Larin, E.A. Razumov. Chinese Media Reaction to the Resignation of the Russian Government (January 2020)
Victor Larin, Institute of History, Archaeology and Ethnology of the Peoples of the Far East, FEB RAS, Vladivostok, Russia. E-mail: email@example.com
Egor Razumov, Institute of History, Archaeology and Ethnology of the Peoples of the Far East, FEB RAS, Vladivostok, Russia. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
The paper examines Chinese media coverage of the events in the Russian Federation since the beginning of 2020. The authors note that at the official level Russian-Chinese relations are defined as “a comprehensive and equal trusting partnership and strategic interaction in the new era”. At the same time, since the beginning of 2020, the number of publications about Russia has significantly decreased, and the information about Russia has been presented without assessments and specifics. The authors conclude that the freedom of expression is preserved in the media space where ordinary users can express their opinions on various issues. There are two directions in the informatization of citizens: the state media controlled by the Communist Party of the People’s Republic of China as well as China’s leadership and the free media. The resignation of the government of the Russian Federation, which took place on January 15, 2020, is a good example of Chinese media coverage of events in Russia. Based on the materials of Chinese media and such information portals as People’s Daily, Xinhua, Dovey, The Global Times as well as Chinese blogosphere Sina-Weibo, the authors come to the conclusion that Chinese information space lacks a sufficiently good understanding of Russia and the events that happen in Russia.
Keywords: China, Russia, mass media.
Igor Tolstokulakov, Far Eastern Federal University, Vladivostok, Russia. E-mail: email@example.com.
The image of Russia in South Korean mass media, expert communities or public opinion often becomes a subject of research of Russian and Korean authors, but everyday perception of our country by ordinary Korean people is less common. It is possible to get a full impression while analyzing the local press or the Internet in South Korea. Historically, the attitude towards the USSR, the pre-revolutionary and modern Russia in the south of the Korean Peninsula was not positive due to the unsettled political and ideological problems in Korea as well as in the postwar world. Koreans impose a part of responsibility for the national disunity and the bloody Korean War of 1950—1953 on the Soviet Union. Fortunately, as time goes by, the acuteness of the problem smoothes, and anti-Russian views in modern Korea are perceived as anachronism, a point of view of an extremely limited part of Korean society that does not influence the public opinion in general. There are a lot of ways to impact on Korean’s perception of Russia and Russian people, but the residents of Vladivostok, the Primorye Region and the Russian Far East have a fundamental task to become “a showcase” of the Russian world open to the Asian-Pacific Region, a place where the neighbors of East Asia could discover authentic Russia without stereotypes.
Keywords: South Korea, Russia, image, public opinion, mentality, stereotype, perception.
Anna Simonenok, Institute of History, Archaeology and Ethnology of the Peoples of the Far East, FEB RAS, Vladivostok, Russia. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
The paper examines the nature and characteristics of the perception of Russia in the region of Southeast Asia. In order to conduct a more objective analysis, the specificity of perception of Russia is examined in three social groups: 1) public at large, ordinary people; 2) business community including businessmen and investors; 3) politicians, political scientists and experts. The author concludes that the views of various social groups and associations on Russia may differ within one state. However, the author also comes to the conclusion that a positive attitude towards Russia prevails in the states of Southeast Asia. The main reasons for the perception of Russia in the region are named. On the one hand, this is the absence of negative historical experience in relations with Russia because it has never had political and economic claims in Southeast Asia. On the contrary, Russia provided support to the peoples of Southeast Asia in the national liberation struggle, gaining sovereignty and restoring the national economy. On the other hand, today’s relations between Russia and the states of the region are shallow. The presence of the Russian Federation in Southeast Asia is insignificant and it does not create competition for national political and economic groups. The relations between Russia and Southeast Asia’s states develop on a constructive and mutually beneficial basis, aim at achieving a definite practical result usually in the field of limited economic interaction, which also creates a favorable background for the formation of a benevolent attitude towards Russia in the states of Southeast Asia.
Keywords: image of Russia, Southeast Asia, public opinion, Russia’s presence in Southeast Asia, stereotypes of perception.
T.V. Krayushkina, V.Yu. Mishin, G.V. Kondratenko, E.A. Goriacheva. New Year’s Wishes as a Reflection of the Worldview of Contemporaries (A Case Study of Vladivostok’s Wish Tree 2020 in Foreign Languages)
Tatiana Krayushkina, Institute of History, Archaeology and Ethnology of the Peoples of the Far East, FEB RAS, Vladivostok, Russia. E-mail: email@example.com.
Valery Mishin, Institute of History, Archaeology and Ethnology of the Peoples of the Far East, FEB RAS, Vladivostok, Russia. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Galina Kondratenko, Institute of History, Archaeology and Ethnology of the Peoples of the Far East, FEB RAS, Vladivostok, Russia. E-mail: email@example.com.
Elena Goriacheva, Institute of History, Archaeology and Ethnology of the Peoples of the Far East, FEB RAS, Vladivostok, Russia. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
The paper studies the worldview of native speakers basing on the cards of Vladivostok’s New Year’s wish tree 2020. 122 cards were decoded in Korean, Chinese, Japanese, Vietnamese, English, Armenian, Uzbek and Kazakh languages. The wishes consist of several components: an addressee, an addresser, an object of wishes, a type of the inscription, a content of the inscription, a date, geographical objects, graphic elements. The wishes are associated with a number of significant aspects of human life: physiology, positive states of mind, social sphere, well-being, achievement of goals, stability, active mindset. The study identified the most popular positions for each type of the addressee and for native speakers of one or another foreign language. It is concluded that private life is important for native speakers. According to the addressee the most essential things are a positive state of mind, health for the family, family members, friends and everyone, success in social life as it has the greatest impact on the addressee’s life. The need for non-material values prevails while material wealth does not matter much for native speakers. The analysis of the wishes revealed greater significance of the interests of another person for the addressee than his own ones.
Keywords: wishes, native speakers, wish tree, New Year, Vladivostok, speech portrait, worldview.
A.A. Brodnikov. Russian Documents about the Transbaikal and Amur Regions in the Twenties of the Seventeenth Century
Aleksandr Brodnikov, Novosibirsk State University, Novosibirsk, Russia. E-mail: email@example.com.
Some 17th-century documentary sources, relating to the movement of troops of Russian service class men to the Yenisei and their advance along the Angara River, contain the data about remote and unknown rich territories located far away in the East. Governors of provinces and service class men were interested in such information received from indigenous peoples because it helped to succeed in public service and gain profit. Other details from local population caused anxiety among Russian authorities, and they had to check rumors about possible danger. The paper describes the data found in the documents from the twenties of the seventeenth century and collected in Yeniseysk and Krasnoyarsk that was clarified and later used by Siberian and Moscow authorities. Firstly, the Yenisei Ostyaks and then the Angara Tungus people informed about a large river with silver deposits in the East. Hence, Siberian authorities and the Moscow government organized the expedition led by Ya. Khripunov in order to find this river. Secondly, the nomadic tribes found out about “an unknown king” who was “fighting” with the Mongol states and planned “to fight” with the Chinese Kingdom. Russian authorities got anxious and started to collect additional facts to provide protection from the king’s invasion. The documentary sources prove that all this information, which turned out to be distorted or erroneous rumors spread through the taiga and the steppe, activated the expansion of the troops of Russian service class men to the East and finally to the Transbaikal and Amur regions.
Keywords: service class men, East Siberia, campaigns.
Larisa Dudar’, Far Eastern Federal University, Vladivostok, Russia. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Based on archival documents, the paper examines the process of transition from closed rationing distribution to free trade from January 1, 1935. The relevance of this study is, firstly, due to the need to study the ways of solving the problems with the supply of the remote region under the conditions of state regulation and planned economy. Secondly, it is important to analyze quantitative and qualitative indicators of the functioning of Far Eastern trade as one of the significant elements of the socioeconomic development of the region in the second half of the 1930s. The abolition of the rationing supply changed the incentives for work, was accompanied by a shift in emphasis in favor of people’s interests in higher earnings as the pricing policy changed — goods were sold at higher prices in free trade. State regulation of prices and wages became an effective lever of influence on planned economy from the mid-1930s. The correlation between cooperative and state trade changed towards the predominance of the latter. More attention was paid to providing conditions for trade turnover growth, specialization of the distribution network. However, the degree of readiness of Far Eastern trade to meet the needs of the region’s population in food and industrial goods without the rationing system was far from the required level. The author emphasizes that the transformations of the distribution system were ambiguous and depended on various political, ideological and socioeconomic aspects. The central and local authorities made attempts to normalize the supply system, but the situation continued to remain difficult throughout the entire period of the 1930s.
Keywords: rationing distribution, free Soviet trade, supply system, allowances, centralized funds of goods, consumer cooperation, state trade.
L.L. Larina, S.M. Tomashuk. The Great Patriotic War in the Memory of the Residents of the Primorye Region (Based on the Results of the Sociological Survey in 2020)
Liliia Larina, Institute of History, Archaeology and Ethnology of the Peoples of the Far East, FEB RAS, Vladivostok, Russia. E-mail: email@example.com.
Svetlana Tomashuk, Institute of History, Archaeology and Ethnology of the Peoples of the Far East, FEB RAS, Vladivostok, Russia. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
The paper is based on the results of the opinion poll of the residents of the Primorye Region conducted in spring 2020 and presents some aspects of public consciousness related to the memory of the Great Patriotic War and the Soviet-Japanese War. The study shows that the overwhelming majority of people have mixed feelings about the victory in the Great Patriotic War. On the one hand, there is a sense of pride for the country and its people, on the other hand, there is bitterness about millions of compatriots who died in the war. For many of them, the memory of the war is a personal matter since their close relatives participated directly in the warfare. The main sources of ideas about the Great Patriotic War among the respondents of different ages are practically the same: Soviet films, school textbooks, stories from relatives and information from school teachers and university professors. For these and other reasons, they are extremely negative about the attempts to rewrite the history of the war, to belittle or even erase the feat of the Soviet people, which are being undertaken in a number of European states. The paper also assesses the degree of awareness of the residents of Primorye about the causes, the course and the consequences of the short Soviet-Japanese War in August 1945, emphasizes the importance of a more detailed study of this period of national and world history in schools and more complete coverage of it in the media.
Keywords: Great Patriotic War, Japan, historical memory, public opinion.
ARCHAEOLOGY AND ETHNOGRAPHY
V.E. Omelko, E.I. Gelman, V.V. Gasilin, M.A. Vinokurova. Wild and Domestic Animals in Life Support of the Yanzhou Ñity of the Bohai State
Valeriya Omelko, Federal Scientific Center of the East Asia Terrestrial Biodiversity FEB RAS, Vladivostok, Russia. E-mail: email@example.com.
Evgeniya Gelman, Institute of History, Archaeology and Ethnology of the Peoples of the Far-East, FEB RAS, Vladivostok, Russia. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Vyacheslav Gasilin, Institute of Plant and Animal Ecology, UB RAS, Ekaterinburg, Russia. E-mail: gasilinV@yandex.ru.
Mariya Vinokurova, Federal Scientific Center of the East Asia Terrestrial Biodiversity FEB RAS, Vladivostok, Russia. E-mail: email@example.com.
The paper analyses the collection of bone remains of mammals and birds from the Kraskinskoe walled town. The bone remains of different domestic and wild animal species are counted. Based on these numbers, the significance of livestock and hunting for the nutritional and economic needs of the population of one of the districts of the Eastern capital of Bohai is estimated. Literary and annalistic data from other Bohai settlements were used for more objective assessment of the significance of animals. It was revealed that the composition of domestic and wild animals and the correlation of their bone remains at the Kraskinskoe walled town have a number of features in comparison to other Bohai settlements. The rate of the domestic animal remains is significantly higher than of the wild animals, and this index is higher than in other Bohai settlements. The quantitative ratio of the remains of the domestic animals also differs — the bones of cattle predominate over the remains of the pigs. The bone remains of camels and cetaceans were discovered at the Bohai settlements for the first time. All these results correspond to the status of the Kraskinskoe walled town as a commercial, transport, political center and a seaport. Meat ration of an average inhabitant of the Kraskinskoe walled town consisted almost only of livestock products and occasionally could include whale and game products.
Keywords: Kraskinskoe walled town, Bohai state, mammals, avifauna, livestock, hunting.
M.A. Stoyakin. Animal Remains from Bohai Sites in China: The Use of Animals in Daily Life and Funeral Ceremonies
Maksim Stoyakin, National Research Institute of Cultural Heritage, Taejon, Republic of Korea. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
The paper describes the use of animals by the Bohai people in daily life and during funeral ceremonies. The information about bone remains from the Bohai sites on the territory of modern China has been collected and summarized for the first time. The data includes one city site, four settlements and four burial grounds located on the basin of the Mudanjiang and Suifen rivers. Particular attention is paid to the description of the material from the Xilinhe settlement. The analysis of osteological remains from the Bohai sites in China allowed to identify the main types of domestic and wild animals in settlements and burials, their correlation, similar and different characteristics of the materials from the Bohai sites located in Russian Primorye and to explain the use of bones in bone carving craft. A significant predominance of domestic animals over wild animals was recorded. Among the domestic animals, the bones of pigs and dogs dominated; the bones of horses and cows were inconsiderable in number. Among wild animals, the majority were the bones of deer. In comparison to the sites of Primorye, the species were limited and there were no bones of wild boars. Unlike settlement complexes, there were no bones of wild animals in the graves, which is very different from the Mohe burials in the Amur Region. This study makes it possible to supplement the information about the use of animals in Bohai and to reconstruct its food, material and spiritual culture.
Keywords: Bohai, China, Primorye, Middle Ages, animal bones, settlement, burial..
A.B. Shipovalova. Ethnocultural Attribution of the Zmeinaya Sopka Hillfort (the Eastern Amur Region)
Anna Shipovalova, Institute of History, Archaeology and Ethnology of the Peoples of the Far East, FEB RAS, Vladivostok, Russia; Khabarovsk Regional Museum named after N.I. Grodekov, Khabarovsk, Russia. E-mail: email@example.com.
The paper analyzes a new archaeological fortification of the Eastern Amur Region — the Zmeinaya Sopka hillfort. A very small number of such objects are known in the Eastern Amur Region (within the borders of the Khabarovsk Region and the Jewish Autonomous Region) in comparison with Primorye and the Western Amur Region. The Zmeinaya Sopka hillfort is located on the Amur basin near the source of its large left tributary, the Tunguska River, formed by the confluence of the Kur and Urmi rivers. The hillfort is located on the sand hill among the tussocks and occupies a strategically advantageous place allowing to control all the waterways in the district. The fortification consists of several independent parts elongated along the southeast — northwest line. The monument is fortified with ramparts up to 1.5 m high, up to 3 m wide and moats up to 1.5 m deep and up to 3 m wide. The total area of the monument is 2.25 ha (250?90 m). According to the geomorphological characteristics, the hillfort belongs to the valley type. The shape of fortifications is quadrangular. 67 rectangular, 26 round and 3 oval cavities with a depth from 1.5 to 0.5 meters were identified on the territory of the settlement. A distinctive feature of the settlement, first encountered on the territory of the Eastern Amur Region, is its structure consisting of three separate fortification objects. The hillfort has good preservation. The presence of grey clay ceramics on the site with a distinctive stamped rolling ornament in the form of a herringbone makes it possible to attribute the settlement to the culture of the Amur Jurchens (Pokrovskaya) and tentatively date it back to the ninth-twelfth centuries.
Keywords: ancient settlement, Zmeinaya Sopka, Eastern Amur Region, Urmi River, Middle Ages, fortification, Amur Jurchen people..