ORAL TRADITION IN THE CONTEXT OF SOCIAL TRANSFORMATIONS
T.V. Krayushkina. Preface
E.L. Tikhonova. Reflection of Sociohistorical Reality in Folk Legends of Russian Old Residents of Transbaikalia
Elena Tikhonova, Institute of Mongolian, Buddhist and Tibetan studies, SB RAS, Ulan-Ude, Russia. E-mail: email@example.com.
The paper analyses folk legends about the settlement and development of Transbaikalia by the Russian people from the point of view of the processes of changing the reality in connection with a large-scale historical event — the national colonization of Siberia. Historical legends, being a product of mass folklore consciousness, reflect the crisis moments in the life of the society as well as the most significant transformation processes of socio-political, historical life of the society in a particular historical period. The folk records of the twentieth and early twenty-first centuries indicate that the annexation of the Siberian Region to the Russian State was a very important event for the Old Believers of Transbaikalia. The paper describes all periods of settlement and development of Siberia, studies and evaluates the events which have been reflected in folk poetry by modern contemporaries. Based on the materials about life and daily routine of the Russian people in Transbaikalia, the motives of voluntary and forced resettlement are distinguished. Special attention is paid to the difficulties of the development of a new territory and to “the cult of work”. It is revealed that the main source of communication and evaluation of information in the legends about the region settlement is the image of the first settler who is depicted as a historically real person. In the legends of the Old Believers of Transbaikalia the motive of formation of the settlement by one family is observed. It is concluded that the folk consciousness reflects important processes of people’s lives significant for the representatives of the tradition, and these processes get axiological evaluation in folklore texts.
Keywords: folklore, Siberia, historical legends, image of the first settler, transformation of historical reality.
T.V. Krayushkina. From Will and Captivity to Freedom: Traditional Representations in Russian Song Folklore of Siberia and the Russian Far East
Tat’yana Krayushkina, Institute of History, Archaeology and Ethnology of the Peoples of the Far East, FEB RAS, Vladivostok, Russia. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Based on the materials of classical song folklore (epics, ballads and historical songs) and late traditional folklore (penal servitude and exile songs, songs of the Civil War period), the paper examines the concepts of will, bondage and freedom that are significant for the system of traditional representations of the Russian people. The following materials were used for the analysis: the texts recorded on the territory of Siberia and the Far East from 1853 to 1988 and the texts of designated genres recorded in other regions of Russia and found on the Internet. The conclusions are drawn about the specifics of these concepts and the features of their functioning. The characteristics of will, bondage and freedom inherent in Russian traditional consciousness are revealed. The concept of captivity in classical song folklore is more developed than the concept of will. A stable, uncomplicated model of ideas about will is found in the classical song folklore. In the late traditional song folklore, it is transformed filling with new meanings and acquiring previously unknown methods of implementation. The comparison of the notion of will in the classical song folklore with the notion of freedom in the late traditional folklore shows that will and freedom have different meaningfulness. Will is private and necessary for the person, obtained by bloodless methods, related to representatives of all classes and has a weak emotional connotation. Freedom is massive, imposed by others, obtained in a bloody struggle, related to representatives of a particular class and has a strong emotional connotation. The concept of freedom of the representatives of the White and Red movements differ from each other.
Keywords: will, captivity, freedom, Russian song folklore, songs of the Civil War period, Siberia, Far East.
L.E. Fetisova. Wars and Military Conflicts in the Folklore Consciousness of the People of the Far East in the Early Twentieth Century
Lidiya Fetisova, Institute of History, Archaeology and Ethnology of the Peoples of the Far East, FEB RAS, Vladivostok, Russia. E-mail: email@example.com.
The military conflicts on the territory of the Asian states neighbouring Russia in the early twentieth century, where Russia also took part, have been described in the scientific literature with a various degree of accuracy. The expansion of information capabilities makes it possible to study a large number of different points of view. It is important to analyse a variety of approaches in order to evaluate the events which turned out to be in “the zone of oblivion” of collective memory. The paper is devoted to two conflicts that were of great importance for the Russian Empire: the Suppression of the Boxer Rebellion of 1900—1901 (“the Chinese War”) and the Russo-Japanese War of 1904—1905. One of the research sources are folklore materials that give an idea of the folk perception of the regional history. Special attention is paid to “the Chinese War” and to the tragic episode when the fire attack of Blagoveshchensk by the Boxers happened in the summer of 1900, and around five thousand Chinese civilians died during the deportation to the right bank of the Amur river. This episode of the regional history was deliberately replaced by the memories about heroic events and moved into “the oblivion zone” of collective memory. The military conflict between the Russian Empire and Japan (the Russo-Japanese War of 1904—1905) got a large scientific bibliography and took place in the national historical memory. The folklore heritage devoted to this war reflects the contradictory evaluation of the event both by monarchists and their opponents. The image of the enemy which had been formed during that time was of interest even 40 years later during the Second World War.
Keywords: Russian Far East, the early 20th century, military conflicts, local folklore, historical memory.
E.O. Kirillova. N. Aseev’s and S. Tretyakov’s Feuilletons in the Far East Periodical Press at the Beginning of the 1920s
Elena Kirillova, Institute of History, Archaeology and Ethnology of the Peoples of the Far East, FEB RAS, Vladivostok, Russia. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
The paper continues a series of works of the author devoted to studying the development of the Russian poetry in the Far East of Russia in the first quarter of the twentieth century. The paper examines the genre of feuilleton in the Far East periodical press and analyses the originality of satirical poetry at the end of the 1910s — the beginning of the 1920s based on the feuilletons by futurist poets N. Aseev and S. Tretyakov. These poets lived and worked in Vladivostok during the Civil War and military intervention in the Russian Far East. The poetic and journalistic activities of the writers and the peculiarity of feuilleton works by Aseev and Tretyakov are studied. They worked under the conditions of literary underground and actively used a lot of pseudonyms including joint ones in the Far East press. The ideological and thematic content of the feuilletons Boole-Boole and Malka-Oriole, their genre and style realization were analyzed. It is noted that the final decisions in the creation of such poetic works were dictated, firstly, by the socio-historical and socio-political orientation of modern poetry and the principle of factography, i.e. “the latest news”, and, secondly, by the intention towards a high artistic level. Nevertheless, the feuilletons by N. Aseev and S. Tretyakov harmoniously combined the spirit of time with “Aesopian language”, orientation on traditions of Russian satire with modernist innovations of the Silver Age — philological experiments and language fun techniques mastered in the Far Eastern practice by well-known futurist poets. The novelty of the research is that N. Aseev’s and S. Tretyakov’s unknown texts have been introduced into scientific discourse for the first time. The texts are found in the funds of the Far East archives: the State Archive of the Primorye Region, the Russian State Historical Archive, the State Archive of the Khabarovsk Region.
Keywords: feuilleton, Nikolay Aseev, Sergey Tretyakov, Boole-Boole, Malka-Oriole, Ginseng, Far East periodical press at the beginning of the 1920s.
T.A. Golovaneva, I.S. Poltoratskiy. Formation of the Soviet Power in Works of Kîryak Writer Ketsai Kekketyn
Tat’yana Golovaneva, Institute of Philology, SB RAS, Novosibirsk, Russia. E-mail: email@example.com.
Ivan Poltoratskiy, Institute of Philology, SB RAS, Novosibirsk, Russia. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Ketsai Kekketyn, the first Koryak writer (1918—1939(?)), in his works described doubts and hopes of his fellow countrymen who witnessed the formation of the Soviet power in the central and north regions of Kamchatka. K. Kekketyn tried to realistically depict the feelings of witnesses of revolutionary transformations. Kekket Meinuvye, the father of the writer, was in the center of political events. K. Meinuvye was a reindeer herdsman who managed to learn literacy, became a member of deer community and agitator for the Soviet power. Basing on the father’s stories, K. Kekketyn wrote a story about the life of the herdsman Evnyto who became a part of new rules in a nomad camp of reindeer Koryaks (Chauchuven). The story “Evnyto-Herdsman” is full of details of the domestic and social life of the Koryak’s camp in the 1920s. The works of the first Koryak writer are full of enthusiasm, hopes for the bright future, delight of new changes. K. Kekketyn shows the first contact of the reindeer herders with the Soviet power. The red flag, bread, cinema, literacy, associations and artels are symbols of positive changes for Ketsai. However, the history of the Soviet power appeared to be more contradictory and dramatic. Some documents and Koryak historic legends revealed tragical events after collectivization: great losses in deer farming and famine in nomadic tribes. Despite his loyalty to the Soviet power, the writer was arrested. Nothing has been known about his life since 1939.
Keywords: literature of Kamchatka, Koryak literature, Koryak writers, Ketsai Kekketyn, Koryak historical traditions, collectivization in Kamchatka, formation of the Soviet power in Kamchatka
HISTORY AND CONTEMPORANEITY
Gennadiy Pikov, Novosibirsk State University, Novosibirsk, Russia. E-mail: email@example.com.
The Chinese dynasties Tang and Song and the Khitan Empire of Liao (907—1125) had a decisive influence on the development of the East Asian region in the Middle Ages. The paper analyses their relations as inter-civilizational and thus attempts to abandon the thesis of the aggressive gangster strategy of the nomadic world against the settled agricultural peoples. The author raises the question of the need for more detailed and non-tendentious research of the constituent problems of this topic: the interaction of settled and nomadic civilizations, independent civilizational zones within a single meta-region of East Asia, the Mongolian and Han Zones connected with Siberian regions and the Turkic world. There are several models of relations between these states associated with different stages of the development of the Khitan people. Diplomacy peculiarity was also defined by the differences in the political culture of these East Asian peoples. It was concluded that the successful development of the nomadic Empire led to the strengthening of cooperation with China which was an undoubted leader and centre of the East Asian civilization. Accordingly, the Chinese culture as a mediator adjusted the development of a new civilizational variant. The existence and evolution of the “Khitan — Chinese” and the “Liao — Song” dichotomies was of particular importance because the first centuries of the second millennium were the time of final formalization of feudalism. Both states did not set an objective of complete elimination of the neighbour but tried to derive maximum benefits from communication with each other.
Keywords: East Asia, China, Liao Empire, Khitans, nomads, relations, foreign policy, civilizations.
B.B. Kondratenko. Personnel Potential of Border Troops of the People’s Commissariat for Internal Affairs of the USSR in the Far East (1939—1945)
Boris Kondratenko, Institute of History, Archaeology and Ethnology of the Peoples of the Far East, FEB RAS, Vladivostok, Russia. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Based on the archive materials introduced into scientific discourse for the first time, the paper analyses the change of number and composition of border troops of the People’s Commissariat for Internal Affairs in the Far East of the USSR during World War II. The prerequisites of the reform of border troops which brought to downsizing of the Far East Border District, broadening of border divisions, increase of military personnel are studied. Due to these changes a new systematic defense line of the state frontier was formed. Much attention is paid to the factors which influenced the recruitment process of the Far East border military districts in a difficult strategic environment. The reasons for decrease of density of border control during different stages of the war and the measures taken by the authorities for additional staff of border troops are thoroughly examined. The new material enlarges the research base on the questions of safety and security support of the Far East. The comparative analysis of the unknown materials allows monitoring the changes in size of border troops in different districts of the Far East according to the tasks and the current operational situation in the cross-border regions of the USSR. A detailed analysis of the dynamics of personnel strength in the Primorye and Khabarovsk Border Military Districts is presented in the table form in chronological order.
Keywords: World War II, Far East, border troops, staff, geopolitics, national security, front, border, USSR.
V.V. Arkhipova. Sanctions against Russia: Specification and Effects for National Economic Development
Violetta Arkhipova, Institute of Economics, RAS, Moscow, Russia. E-mail: email@example.com
The research is devoted to the systemic analysis of the current sanction regime against Russia. The paper contains the main characteristics and features of the applied sanctions and offers the sanctions’ extended classification. Reviewing and describing the main trends of the sanction regime chronology, we identify, analytically justify and specify the particular phases of its development within the sanction period of 2014—2018, namely the starting, intermediate and accelerated stages. Based on the analysis of the current sanction regime history and dynamics of the two representative statistical indicators (i.e. the real effective exchange rate of the ruble and the consumer price index), the effects and paradoxes of the sanctions regime are detected and traced. In particular, we analyze the “sanction automatism” or “snowball” and the economic (mainly currency and inflation) effects. The last ones are subdivided into the real net sanction effect and the pessimistic expectations’ effect of economic agents due to the sanction development. Particular attention is paid to the following paradoxes of the sanction regime: “tightening the screws” by the countries-sanctioners while reducing the relatively low effectiveness of the measures, the development of sanctions without achieving its political goals and “overzealousness” of the third party. We offer a comparative analysis of strategies and actions of the most active sanctioners with their division into groups. Additionally, we examine the behavior of sanctioners regarding the third party of the sanction regime and the impact of its response and pessimistic expectations over extraterritorial sanctions on the interaction with Russia.
Keywords: sanction regime, Russia, sanction effects, sanctioners’ behavior.
ARCHAEOLOGY AND ETHNOGRAPHY
T.Yu. Sem. On the Question of Ethno-Cultural Relations and Semantics of the Uilta’s (Oroks’) Ornament. Part II. Zoomorphic and Anthropomorphic Motifs
Tat’yana Sem, Russian Museum of Ethnography, Saint Petersburg, Russia. Å-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
The paper is devoted to the study of symbols and semantics of zoomorphic and anthropomorphic motifs of the Uilta’s (Oroks’) ornament in the context of culture and from the position of ethno-cultural relations. The author proceeds from the fact that the study of ornament semantics allows revealing archaic universals of human culture encoded in the images of “sensual generalizations”. Moreover, the study of ethno-cultural parallels in the ornament characterizes the processes of culture genesis and ethnic history which is an important historical and ethnographic research task at the present stage. The main sources are from the museum collections of the Russian Ethnographic Museum (REM) and the Far Eastern museums. The typology of the curvilinear ornament of the Oroks shows that it includes zoomorphic motifs consisting of images of birds (duck, eagle owl, eagle), images of predatory animals (bear, tiger, wolf), cloven-hoofed animals (deer, wild boar), small fur animals (hare), reptiles (snake, dragon). Another widespread motif in ornamental compositions and their elements are anthropomorphic images symbolizing the gods of fertility; furthermore, there are images of rosettes as symbols of round dances imitating solar dances by the fire. The image of a deer-man depicted in the ornament and sculpture as a symbol of a mediator between the cosmos and people is included in the shaman Pantheon. The analysis of semantics of zoomorphic and anthropomorphic ornaments shows that they are connected with the mythology of the first creation, models of the Universe, the Pantheon, shamanism, the cults of fertility, the bear, the Sun and the fire. The ethnocultural aspect of the analysis of these motifs of the Oroks’ ornament characterizes the ancient layer of Siberian-ancient Chinese-Indian parallels, the Neolithic Amur layer associated with the Northern — Siberian and Southern — East Asian and South-East Asian influence. The pre-Altai beliefs of the Bronze Age, the ancient Chinese element, the Central Asian-Scythian images and the medieval Jurchen stories are distinguished. Thus, the analysis of the Oroks’ ornament from the standpoint of its semantics, connections with beliefs and rituals as well as the identification of ethnic and cultural relations allow exploring the fine arts as a historical and ethnographic source at a new level.
Keywords: ornament, zoomorphic and anthropomorphic motifs, semantics, beliefs and rituals, ethnocultural parallels and connections, culture genesis, Uilta (Oroks).
Wooseop Lee, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow, Russia. E-mail: email@example.com.
This paper introduces the general results of the excavations of the Duurlignars burial ground carried out by the National Museum of Korea, the Institute of Archaeology of the Mongolian Academy of Sciences and the National Museum of Mongolian History in 2006—2011. Duurlignars is one of the most prominent monuments of the Xiongnu period located in East Mongolia. During the archaeological excavations three tombs with dromos and two without dromos were studied differentiating by their size, construction, details of burial rites and wealth status of buried persons. The basis of the funeral equipment consisted of various harness details, weapon, bronze and gold decorations in animal style, bronze cauldrons and ceramic pottery. The paper also emphasizes the spatial distribution of these artefacts inside chambers. The dates of the Duurlignars Tombs were derived by the means of radiocarbon analysis of wood and comparative and typological research of bronze mirrors which allowed to date this monument by A.D. 1. Different natural science methods were also implemented such as anthropological analysis of human remains, analysis of organic and inorganic substances, DNA tests, paleozoological studies. All the data obtained during the excavation of Duurlignars provide new information which is necessary for the reconstruction of the Xiongnu culture and economy and allows defining new research objectives.
Keywords: Xiongnu, kurgan, tomb, burial, dromos, animal style.
A.P. Mikhal’chenko. Boundary Delimitation of the Archaeological Heritage Site (A Case Study of the Shaiga Walled Town)
Andrey Mikhal’chenko, Institute of History, Archaeology and Ethnology of the Peoples of the Far East, FEB RAS, Vladivostok, Russia. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
One of the most important measures designed to deal with preservation of archaeological heritage sites (hereinafter referred to as AHS) is delimitation and confirmation of territorial boundaries. Nowadays the boundaries of the most archaeological sites not only in Primorye but also on the territories of many constituent entities of the Russian Federation have not been defined. According to the current legislation, boundary delimitation of archaeological heritage sites is to be enforced by the acts of executive authorities which perform respective functions at the national level. These acts are issued in accordance with the projects of territorial boundaries of archaeological heritage sites. The projects are worked out with reference to necessary historical, architectural, town-planning, archival and archaeological studies. They must include graphic (maps, diagrams) and textual documentation as well as information on substantiation and confirmation of boundaries. The paper presents the results of the boundary delimitation and the development of the pioneer project on the area boundaries of the archaeological heritage site in Primorye. The paper mainly focuses on introducing the information on the practical application of laws and regulations controlling determination of a location and confirmation of boundaries. A full range of activities led to the creation of the project of the boundary delimitation of the archaeological heritage territory “the Shaiga Walled Town”. Therefore, the State Inspectorate for Preservation of Cultural Heritage of the Primorye Region issued a decree of approval.
Keywords: archaeology, real estate register, archaeological sites, preservation of archaeological heritage sites, Primorye Region, the Shaiga walled town, topographic plan, laws and regulations, project on boundary delimitation of the archaeological heritage site.
Y.V. Latushko. “Perestroika in Paradise”: The Stages of the Transformation of Aboriginal Culture in the Hawaiian Islands
Yuri Latushko, Institute of History, Archaeology and Ethnology of the Peoples of the Far East, FEB RAS, Vladivostok, Russia. E-mail: email@example.com.
The paper analyses the development and transformation of the Hawaiian society. The literature has established a stereotype of Hawaii as “a land of eternal spring” or “a paradise” with ideal conditions for the development of the complex society and culture. The discovery of the archipelago by Captain James Cook (1778) radically changed the life of the native Hawaiians and destroyed their former life. Based on the data of island archaeology and geography, written and folklore sources, the author shows that “perestroika in paradise” began long before the arrival of the Europeans who played the role of a catalyst for the processes that had already happened. The environment itself imposed limits on the development of the traditional Hawaiian society. The most isolated medium-scale oceanic islands of volcanic origin were limited in their natural resources and exchange possibilities with other cultural centres of Polynesia. That is why, “perestroika” began from the earliest stages of its development, and the Hawaiians were the architects: they managed to find cultural responses to environmental challenges in a highly entropic closed system for a long time. The potential of internal development was exhausted approximately after 1500 when the population of the archipelago reached its maximum number of hundreds of thousands of people. The demographic plateau was held for about three or four generations. Afterwards, the society entered a phase of the protracted crisis due to the changes in the habitat and the growth of military conflicts. On other oceanic islands of smaller sizes and landscape complexity these limits were reached even earlier as it happened with the famous Easter Island.
Keywords: Hawaiian archipelago, cultural transformation, ecological environment.
M.V. Kovalev. Postwar Sakhalin Caught on Camera
A.V. Maklyukov, T.Z. Poznyak. All-Russian Scientific Conference “Border Conflicts and Cross-Border Cooperation in Historical Retrospective. The 17th — 20th Centuries. (The 9th Krushanov Readings)”