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THE RUSSIAN FAR EAST DURING THE IMPERIAL PERIOD

Gallyamova L.I. Preface
Lyudmila Gallyamova, Institute of History, Archaeology and Ethnology of the Peoples of the Far East, FEB RAS, Vladivostok, Russia. E-mail: ludagal@mail.ru.
This year marks the 300th anniversary of the Russian Academy of Sciences, and the question of the historical significance of its achievements is inevitable. The purpose ofthis paper is to evaluate the results ofthe Russian Academy of Sciences in studying the Russian Far East in the first half of the eighteenth century. It is noted that one of the most important tasks of the Academy of Sciences, which was established on February 8, 1724 by the decree of Peter I, was the organisation of scientific expeditions. These expeditions accumulated not only valuable scientific data but also collected materials on geography, flora and fauna, culture and history of different peoples, etc. Scientific funds were established, various collections were created enriching museums and giving a start to the development of regional scientific fields. It was extremely symbolic and pivotal for the Russian Far East that simultaneously with the establishment of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Emperor Peter I issued a decree to organise the First Kamchatka Expedition to discover the strait between Asia and America. The expedition, led by V.Bering from January 1725 to April 1730, made it possible to make a number of discoveries, to provide valuable information and new accurate maps, but the strait was not found. In 1732, by the decree of Empress Anna Ioannovna, preparations began for a new expedition to the Pacific Ocean with the active participation of the Saint Petersburg Academy and a broad program of research with the goal to discover the strait. The Second Kamchatka Expedition lasted from 1733 to 1743 and can be considered the greatest enterprise of the Academy of Sciences in the 18th century as it explored a vast territory of Russia. The expedition teams travelled far to the northeast of Eurasia up to Alaska and established the existence of the strait between them. For the first time in the first half of the 18th century, the world got unique knowledge about these territories of the Russian Empire as well as reliable geographical maps. Up to the present, the scientists continue to discover and introduce the valuable documents of the Second Kamchatka Expedition in scientific discourse.
Keywords: Russian Far East, establishment of the Academy of Sciences, expeditionary activity, the First Kamchatka Expedition, the Second Kamchatka Expedition, scientific discoveries, historical significance of Kamchatka expeditions.
Svetlana Beloglazova, Institute of History, Archaeology and Ethnology of the Peoples of the Far East, FEB RAS, Vladivostok, Russia. E-mail: Beloglazov1@yandex.ru.
The paper examines the history of the school reform of 1864 in Pacific Russia, which has not been studied in regional historiography. The reform of the secondary school was an integral part of the modernization processes that took place after the abolition of serfdom. The author emphasizes the influence of the Regulations on Primary Public Schools of 1864 on the formation of a network of primary schools in the region. The study identifies at least three regional programs aimed at modernizing the education system in Eastern Siberia including Pacific Russia. The paper underlines the challenges in the process of implementing the reform and the decisive role of private initiatives in school construction in the 1860s. During this period, along with the state represented by regional and local authorities, Cossack and rural societies, church parishes, merchants and other entrepreneurs became the subjects of educational policy. The refusal of the state to participate in the financing of primary public schools meant the formation of a tradition of residual financing of the needs of public education at the national level. Assessing the educational policy of the central government, the author considers it a deterrent to school construction in Pacific Russia and an obstacle to the full integration of the region into the civilizational space of the Russian Empire. New archival data have been introduced into scientific discourse.
Keywords: education reform, primary school, Eastern Siberia, Pacific Russia, the 1860s.
Aleksey Maklyukov, Institute of History, Archaeology and Ethnology of the Peoples of the Far East, FEB RAS, Vladivostok, Russia. E-mail: alekseymaklyukov@yandex.ru.
The paper analyzes the conditions and factors of electrification of the Far East during the imperial period, identifying the influence of electrical innovations on the processes and results of modernization of the region. The conceptual basis of the study is the theory of innovation, which serves as a new tool for studying various aspects of Russian modernization. It is shown that from the end of the 19th century until the beginning of the 20th century the process of electrification of the Far East was based on Russias openness to the technologies from foreign countries, active government policy to attract foreign investment to the region and the activities of private entrepreneurs. Vladivostok, as a port and a center of entrepreneurial activity of German citizens, played a leading role in the interregional transfer of innovations from the end of the 19th century until the beginning of the 20th century. These processes led to the increase in production and power supply of labor in the industry of the Far East. Electrification contributed to the progress and transformation of everyday and sociocultural life in cities and villages. Innovative changes were manifested in the improvement of amenities, in the quality and comfort of life of citizens, in the development of transport and in the growth of European cultural influence. Specific results of industrial, urban and rural electrification of the Far East indicate that the technological foundation was laid for the successful modernization of the region between the late 19th century and the early 20th century.
Keywords: Russian Far East, Russian periphery, innovation, technologies, modernization, electrification.
Tatyana Poznyak, Institute of History, Archaeology and Ethnology of the Peoples of the Far East, FEB RAS, Vladivostok, Russia. E-mail: tzpoznyak@mail.ru.
The historical and anthropological change and the introduction of new paradigms in historical research have aroused interest in the study of everyday history. Despite the fact that in foreign historiography this trend was already between the 1960s and the 1980s, in national historical science a great research upsurge happened only between the 1980s and the 1990s. The paper summarizes the results of regional studies of the everyday history of Far Eastern cities during the imperial period, defines the prospects and draws a conclusion about the great breakthrough made by Far Eastern researchers from the late 1990s until nowadays. Impressive results have been achieved in describing the social composition and occupations of city residents, their income, way of life and lifestyle, urban development and improvement, the sanitary condition of Far Eastern cities, holiday and everyday leisure of citizens, their social activities, the establishment of education and healthcare systems in the cities and the provision of social assistance to the needy population. However, despite the positive trends, a lot of issues have remained beyond the attention of researchers: relations between the sexes, marriage and family, raising children, everyday practices of work and leisure, religiosity and religious practices of city residents, deviant behavior, social norms and their violation, which creates space for further study of the history of everyday life in Far Eastern cities of the Russian Empire
Keywords: historiography, Far Eastern cities, Russian Empire, everyday history, urban environment, improvement, leisure, public life
Roman Avilov, Institute of History, Archaeology and Ethnology of the Peoples of the Far East, FEB RAS, Vladivostok, Russia. E-mail: avilov-1987@mail.ru.
Basing on the documents of the Russian State Military Historical Archive introduced into scientific discourse for the first time, the paper analyses the activity of Adjutant-General I.G. Skolkovs commission in the South Ussuri Region in 1869. The general characteristic of the state of the Ussuri Unmounted Cossack Battalion ofthe Amur Cossack Host during the inspection of the capital commission is defined. The following problems are pointed out: the deplorable condition of the battalion caused by mistakes in its initial settlement along the Ussuri River, problems in agriculture and cattle breeding, difficulties in postal service and supplying firewood for steamships. The unfavourable influence of the penalized lower ranks included in the battalion on the formation of the mentality of the Ussuri Cossack is described. It is underlined that it was absolutely impossible to use the Ussuri Unmounted Cossack Battalion as a military force due to the complete lack of anymilitary training among theCossacks. Thepaper evaluates the plan of the Governor-General of Eastern Siberia Lieutenant-General M.S.Korsakov to improve the economic situation of the battalion. The sceptical attitude of I.G. Skolkovs commission to some provisions of M.S.Korsakovs plan is noted. The proposals of the commission to stabilize the situation in the battalion and to improve its social and economic conditions were published for the first time. The paper concludes about the fallacies of the commissions activities published in the book A Brief History of the Amur Cossack Host by R.Ivanov in 1912
Keywords: Amur Cossack Host, Ussuri Unmounted Cossack Battalion, East Siberian Military District, I.G. Skolkov, M.S. Korsakov, Russian Far East, South Ussuri Region.
Sergey Savchenko,Khabarovsk Regional Museum Named after N.I. Grodekov, Khabarovsk, Russia. E-mail: swcos@mail.ru
Timofey Sivakov,State Archive of the Khabarovsk Territory, Khabarovsk, Russia. E-mail: tim-sivok@mail.ru.
The purpose of the paper is to study military organizational measures for the consolidation of cavalry units of the Russian Imperial Army during the First World War on the example of the reformation of the Ussuri Mounted Brigade into the Ussuri Mounted Division by including the second-line combat units of the Amur and Ussuri Cossack troops at the end of 1915. The authors set tasks to determine the nature of mobilization measures in the Priamur military district, to identify the sequence of decisions by the Headquarters of the Supreme Commander-in-Chief on sending rear Cossack units to the front, to review the actions of the Priamur military district command to prepare these units for dispatch and to determine the order and timing of the arrival of these units in the army. In the autumn of 1914, after the mobilization in the Priamur military district, the Ussuri Mounted Brigade left for the theater of military operations. In the summer of 1915, the Headquarters of the Supreme Commander-in-Chief raised the issue of sending Cossack units of the rear military districts to the front. Thus, the Priamur military district housed the combat units of the Amur and Ussuri Cossack troops formed in 1914the 2nd Amur Cossack Regiment and the Ussuri Cossack Division. The district command began to prepare these units for deployment to the front. On 29 October 1915, the Supreme Commanderin-Chief Emperor Nicholas II allowed the inclusion of the 2nd Amur Cossack Regiment and the Ussuri Cossack Division into the active army. On 4 November, he approved the inclusion of these units into the Ussuri Mounted Brigade and its reformation into a division, which was announced by the order of the Chief of Staff of the Supreme Commanderin-Chief on 1 December. Between December 1915 and January 1916, these units arrived at the location of the Ussuri Mounted Brigade, and after that the brigade was deployed to the Ussuri Mounted Division.
Keywords: World War I, Ussuri Mounted Division, 2nd Amur Cossack Regiment, Ussuri Cossack Division.
Pavel Vinogradov, Far Eastern Fire and Rescue Academy Branch of SaintPetersburg University of State Fire Service of EMERCOM of Russia, Vladivostok, Russia. E-mail: supwin26@mail.ru.
Maxim Sherstyuk, Russian State Agrarian University-Moscow Timiryazev Agricultural Academy, Moscow, Russia. E-mail: maxim99@mail.ru.
The paper examines the issues of the functioning and activity of the railways of the Far East during the First World War. The war demonstrated the extremely important role of railway communications both in ensuring military operations and in the stability of the economy transferred to military rails. In the Far East, Vladivostok became a key port in receiving military cargoes supplied by the allies to Russia as part of military-technical cooperation. In this regard, the issue of timely export of goods to the European part of the country became particularly important. The railways transported strategic raw materials, weapons and production equipment for the Russian army and industry from abroad. During the war, various measures were taken to increase the capacity of the railway for the rapid transportation of goods. The authors conclude that during the war, in addition to the natural load dictated by wartime conditions, the railways of the Far East took on specific and unusual functions related to military-technical cooperation with the allies. The railways became the main transport arteries in the east of Russia and the only routes for transporting weapons and strategic equipment for the army and industry coming from the Entente countries and neutral states.
Keywords: Russian Far East, railways, Chinese Eastern Railway, Vladivostok, military-technical cooperation, rolling stock, cargo transportation.
Anton Kuznetsov, Moscow State Institute of International Relations, MGIMO University, Moscow, Russia. E-mail: sapsannemo@gmail.com.
The intensification of ties of a different nature between Russia and China in the second and third decades of the 21st century has considerably increased the interest of the scientific community in studying the history of the bilateral relations development. At the same time, the researchers in their papers currently tend to refer not only to the well-known achievements of this cooperation but also to almost forgotten tragic pages such as the 1900 Blagoveshchensk tragedy. The paper examines the approaches and conclusions of two large groups of researchers engaged in the study of this issue: Russian and English-speaking ones. The author evaluates the viewpoints of the two different groups of historiographers on one particular event. In this regard, the paper separately analyzes the works of each of the historical schools, paying primary attention to the causes and the scale of the tragedy, the extent of influence of this event on modern Russian-Chinese relations and the degree of the two societies awareness of the events of their shared history, and also looks for common ground or states their absence in these works. In conclusion, the author emphasizes that despite the differences in the overview of the Blagoveshchensk tragedy by the two groups of historiographers, there is still some similarity of their perspectives on certain aspects of the topic. The author also points out the lack of the works devoted to this issue and provides some recommendations how to overcome it.
Keywords: Blagoveshchensk, Russian Empire, China, Anti-Chinese Pogrom, Blagoveshchensk tragedy, Russian-Chinese relations, historiography.

HISTORY AND ETHNOLOGY

Nikolay Ancha, Institute of History, Archaeology and Ethnology of the Peoples of the Far East, FEB RAS, Vladivostok, Russia. E-mail: Nikolayancha@gmail.com.
The paper attempts to analyze the foreign policy of the Republic of Korea during its modern history in the context of the growing tension in the relations between China and the United States and the crisis related to nuclear weapons in the DPRK. The 2010s, a chronological period of the research, is a period of significant complication of the international situation in the Pacific region. At that time, a number of important international events took place that profoundly influenced the political life of South Korea. Among them are the missile crisis on the Korean peninsula due to North Koreas declaration as a nuclear-weapon state, the Crimean crisis and sanctions against Russia in 20142015. All these events were reflected in the context of both geopolitical dynamics and economic changes in the second decade of the twenty-first century. The changes related to political events in the Asia-Pacific region are accompanied by shifts in global economic and sociological trends that have a long-term impact on the foreign and domestic policies of the countries of the region. Among them are the changes in the trade balance of the regions countries and changes in public sentiments. The purpose of this paper is to study the characteristic features of the foreign policy of the Republic of Korea during this period, the process of their transformation with the new governments in the country. The purpose of the study is to show the degree of South Koreas dependence on the changing architecture of international relations between 2010 and 2020. The country, geographically located between China and Japan, is forced to pursue a cautious foreign policy balancing the interests of the economy and national security. Using the example of political relations between Japan and South Korea, the paper demonstrates the importance of factors of cultural differences and historical memory in the formation of international relations in the Pacific region
Keywords: South Korea, Republic of Korea, China, Russia, Japan, Northeast Asia, geopolitics, foreign policy, economy.
Alexander Prasol, Niigata University of International Culture and Information, Niigata, Japan. E-mail: aprasol@gmail.com.
The Oninki war chronicle (The Onin Chronicle) is the main source of information about the largest military conflict of medieval Japan. The war, which lasted from 1467 to 1477, was a turning point in the system of military rule. It dealt a crushing blow to the Ashikaga regime and set in motion an uncontrollable mechanism of internecine warfare throughout the country. The chronicle describes the events that took place in the central part of the country several years before and during the war. The author of the chronicle is unknown, but considering the anti-war text, it is most likely a monk or an aristocrat of low rank closely associated with the Buddhist clergy. In favor of this assumption is the obvious adherence to Confucian values to which the author appeals throughout the text. The detailed description of events indicates that the text was written shortly after the end of the war, perhaps in the 1470s. The information is generally reliable, although todays knowledge of this period is much more complete. Structurally, the chronicle consists of three scrolls. This paper presents a translation and a commentary of the first scroll, which covers seven major topics: 1) bribery and nepotism in the entourage of Shogun Yoshimasa; 2) personal injustice of the Shogun; 3) declaration of his younger brother as his successor; 4) the birth of the Shoguns heir; 5) the conflict in the Shiba family; 6) the conflict in the Hatakeyama family; 7) the battle at Goryo Shrine and the beginning of the war. The description and Russian translation of the Oninki have been published in our country for the first time. The translation is provided with a detailed commentary and illustrations to facilitate the perception of medieval realities. The paper aims to expand the database of Japanese medieval works translated into Russian.
Keywords: Muromachi period, the Onin War, Ashikaga Yoshimasa, period of internecine wars

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