RUSSIA AND THE SOUTH-PACIFIC REGION
Antoshin A.V., Rudnikova E.V. Preface. In the Great Spaces of Terra Australis
Kanaev E.À., Terskikh M.À. Cooperation between Russia and the South Pacific Countries: an Asia-Pacific Multilateral Dialogue Perspective
Evgeny Kanaev, Center for Asia-Pacific Studies, Primakov National Research Institute of World Economy and International Relations, Moscow, Russia. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Mikhail Terskikh, Center for Asia-Pacific Studies, Primakov National Research Institute of World Economy and International Relations, Moscow, Russia. E-mail: email@example.com
The paper specifies the potential of Asia-Pacific multilateral dialogue platforms — APEC, the ARF, the ADMM+8 and the EAS — from the perspective of re-energizing cooperation between Russia and the South Pacific countries. In the first paragraph, the authors analyze the strategy and results of Russia’s policy in APEC, the principal Asia-Pacific dialogue platform aimed at stimulating economic integration; in the second, they focus on Russia’s participation in ASEAN-centric multilateral negotiation venues that hold discussions on political and security issues. In the third paragraph, the degree of utility of those multilateral venues for strengthening relations between Russia and the South Pacific region that participate in those institutions — Australia, New Zealand and Papua New Guinea — are revealed. The authors argue that the evolution of regional processes does not contribute to strengthening Russia’s partnership with those states. The intensification of US-China competition (including the establishment of antagonistic structures and integration projects), the tightening of anti-Chinese rhetoric in the United States and its ally countries leads to an increasing polarization of Asia-Pacific dialogue platforms. Moreover, the agenda of those platforms, created decades ago, do not always seem to meet the present realities. The unwillingness to adapt to the urgent problems of the region results in the consolidation of a largely formal role of those platforms and in a decrease in interest of their participants. Under these circumstances, a search for a unifying constructive agenda is difficult, while without it, finding common ground with countries that have not previously been involved in any close contacts with Russia seems almost impossible. At the same time, in the foreseeable future Russia’s relations with Australia and New Zealand will be profoundly shaped by Russia’s confrontation with the West. Russia’s dialogue with Papua New Guinea is more promising. Nevertheless, owing to the geographic remoteness and lack of interest from the business community, no breakthroughs can be expected either.
Keywords: Russia, APEC, ASEAN, Asia-Pacific, South Pacific, Australia, New Zealand, Papua New Guinea.
Alexander Massov, St. Petersburg State Marine Technical University, St. Petersburg, Russia. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
The paper is devoted to the analysis of the Australian pages of the “travel journal” (diary) of Achilles P. Shabelsky who took part as a translator in the circumnavigation of the sloop Apollo. 200 years ago, in June 1822, a Russian sloop visited Sydney on its way to Russian America. The traveler described his impressions in the book published in St. Petersburg in 1826. Shabelsky writes about the natural and climatic features of Australia, critically interprets the course of the English colonization of New South Wales, reflects on convicts, and shares his impressions about the appearance, life and customs of the Australian aborigines. Shabelsky’s observations are distinguished by undoubted accuracy and the elements of scientific analysis, and he, in fact, acted as one of the Russian explorers of Australia. Shabelsky’s “travel journal” is also the main source for studying the history of the Apollo’s circumnavigation in 1821—1824 and the history of the Russian Navy as a whole. The Australian pages of Shabelsky’s “travel journal” are crucially important. It was one of the first publications about the mysterious and exotic continent written by the Russian man who saw the realities of distant Australia for himself. In this regard, Shabelsky’s book played a significant role in acquainting the Russian reading public with the Australian continent, its indigenous people, the nature, course and prospects of the English colonization of New South Wales.
Keywords: Achilles P. Shabelsky, Russian circumnavigations, the sloop Apollo, British colonization of Australia, Russian exploration of Australia.
Saukova E.S. Australian-British Relations in the Context of the Formation of Australian Nationalism (The Second Half of the Nineteenth Century)
Elizaveta Saukova, Chelyabinsk State University, Chelyabinsk, Russia. E-mail: email@example.com.
In the second half of the nineteenth century, the British colonies in Australia entered a period of rapid socio-economic and political development. At the same time, the pressing problems of regional development — such as, for example, the territorial allocation of Oceania, defense, migration — became more and more significant in the relationship between the mother country and its colonies. The intention to raise the status in the empire and realize regional interests stimulated the socio-political elite of the self-governing colonies to look for an ideological basis for such claims. Understanding the unwillingness of the imperial authorities to respond promptly to their requests, the Australians developed their own nationalism. In the colonies, there was a dynamic spread of the idea that British people, in the conditions of the fifth continent, gave rise to a new Australian nation that retained a “blood” relationship with the Anglo-Saxon race. Emphasizing this connection and their “Britishness”, the Australians, however, felt their isolated position in the empire and prejudiced attitude from the British. It seemed that the inherent ignorance of the British about the state of affairs in distant colonies and, as a result, the occasional ill-considered policy of the mother country in Australia and the Pacific became an argument in the debates about the future of the continent. Australian nationalism became the ideological basis of the movement for the union of the colonies in order to strengthen their roles in the empire and the region.
Keywords: Australian history, Australian nationalism, British empire.
Kanevskaya G.I. Asymmetric Alliance or Cooperation (80 Years since the Establishment of Diplomatic Relations between the USSR and Australia)
Galina Kanevskaya, Far Eastern Federal University, Vladivostok, Russia. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
October 2022 marked the 80th anniversary of the establishment of official diplomatic relations between the USSR and the Commonwealth of Australia. The paper traces the evolution of Russian-Australian relations over the entire period preceding this event and numbering more than 200 years (the 19th century — the 40s of the 20th century), identifies the main stages and forms of these relations. The first contacts between Russians and Australians began with the visits of the ships of the Russian fleet to the shores of the fifth continent, which in the 19th century often led to the growth of Russophobia in the Australian colonies of the Great Britain, who feared the Russian invasion. In the middle of the 19th century, the consular service of the Russian Empire in Australia (1857—1918) was created, which contributed to the emergence of the first trade, economic and cultural contacts. During the Soviet period, interstate ties were in fact interrupted. Diplomatic relations were concluded only after the outbreak of the Pacific War at the initiative of Australia, which sought to push the Soviet Union to more actively contain Japan, calm public opinion in favor of normalizing relations with the USSR and create conditions for the development of Australian-Soviet trade. The author draws attention to the modern assessment of the foreign policy and diplomacy of both countries in domestic and Australian historiography.
Keywords: Russian-Australian relations, Soviet-Australian relations, establishment of diplomatic relations between the USSR and Australia.
Antoshin A.V. Australia of the Mid-Twentieth Century in the Perception of Rodion Berezov, a Representative of the “Second Wave” of Emigration from the USSR
Alexey Antoshin, Ural Federal University, Ekaterinburg, Russia. E-mail: email@example.com.
The paper is devoted to the perception of Australian society and its structures of everyday life in the middle of the 20th century by the emigrant from the Soviet Union. The central figure of this study is R. Berezov (R.M. Akulshin), the Soviet poet and writer of the 1920s—1930s, the playwright who personally knew S. Yesenin, B. Pasternak and many other figures of Russian culture. The paper describes R. Berezov’s journey to Australia in the early 1960s. This research is based on the series of essays published by R. Berezov adapted from the materials of the trip in Russian emigrant publications (“Russkaya Mysl”, “Novaya Zarya”, etc.). R. Berezov’s perception of the natural and climatic features of Australia, its social structures, and policy towards the indigenous inhabitants of the aboriginal country is characterized. The former Soviet writer paid considerable attention to the peculiarities of the Australian food culture, the forms of leisure activities of Australian people. Special emphasis is given to the analysis of R. Berezov’s description and specifics of the largest cities in Australia (Sydney, Melbourne, Brisbane, Adelaide, Perth, etc.). R. Berezov’s attempt of the comparative analysis of the cultural specifics between Australia and New Zealand is examined. The author argues that the features of Australian everyday life noted by R. Berezov characterize both the specifics of Australia in the mid-twentieth century and the country’s belonging to the British cultural and civilizational area.
Keywords: Australia, emigrants from the USSR, “second wave” of emigration, R. Berezov, “Novaya Zarya”, “Russkaya Mysl”.
Elena Rudnikova,Institute of History, Archaeology and Ethnology of the Peoples of the Far East, FEB RAS, Vladivostok, Russia. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
The paper provides an overview of domestic and foreign historiography on the problem of the Russian presence in New Zealand, which is an important part of the history of Russia-New Zealand relations in general. Five main subsections are distinguished in the study: mutual acquaintance, official relations and trade-economic ties, cultural contacts, emigration and other forms of migration from Russia, the formation and activity of the Russian-speaking diaspora. The focus of the research is the Russian contribution to Russia-New Zealand relations. The chronological framework of the study is between the first third of the nineteenth century and the first two decades of the twenty-first century. The pre-revolutionary period of Russian history relates to the early period of New Zealand statehood (1840—1907); the Soviet period correlates in time with the post-war periods after WWI and WWII in the development of New Zealand from dominion status (1907) to the independent state (1931); the post-Soviet period is significant only for Russia. The main results of the scientific research in each period are characterized. The paper describes the importance of the scientific base created by the historians of Australia and their contribution to science, assesses the current state of the problem in scientific historiography, and determines the relevance of the topic and prospects for future research.
Keywords: Russia-New Zealand relations, Russians in New Zealand, emigration from Russia.
Maria Vysotskaya, freelance researcher, Moscow, Russia. E-mail: email@example.com.
The paper analyzes the current state of Russian-New Zealand relations (from 1991 to the present), trying to create their complete picture for the first time in Russian historiography. The development of these bilateral relations in the political, economic and humanitarian spheres was considered, as well as the interaction of the two countries within the framework of multilateral international formats. The author made an attempt to identify the historical background and current circumstances that have influenced the dynamics of Russian-New Zealand relations. In addition, in this context, a comprehensive assessment of the activities of the Russian diaspora in New Zealand was given. An analysis of the evolution of Russian-New Zealand relations after 1991 showed that the collapse of the USSR and the emergence of a new democratic state, the Russian Federation, striving for cooperation with Western powers, were conducive to the strengthening of relations between the two countries, but accumulated prejudices and contradictions impeded this process. Despite the certain successes achieved in all spheres of bilateral cooperation, the relations between Russia and New Zealand were severely damaged in 2014, continuing only to deteriorate in subsequent years due to the intensifying confrontation between the Russian side and New Zealand’s key allies, primarily the United States and the United Kingdom. The author comes to an unpromising conclusion that today Russian-New Zealand relations are at their lowest level since 1991, and there are no prospects for their tangible improvement, as this would require fundamental changes in the strategic foreign policy of both countries.
Keywords: Russia, New Zealand, Russian-New Zealand relations, the Russian diaspora in New Zealand.
Sofia Pale, Institute of Oriental Studies, RAS, Moscow, Russia. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
The paper deals with the cultural codes of Oceania which have become an integral part of world culture: surfing as a lifestyle for many people around the world, the art of tattooing, which began to gain popularity in Europe after James Cooks’ trips to Oceania in the late eighteenth century, the “tiki culture” inspired by the attributes of Polynesian exotica, etc. The evidence is presented by the participants of maritime research expeditions of the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, who, together with writers, artists and scientists introduced the Oceanic culture to the global world. The paper analyses the influence of Oceania on the culture of Europe, America and Russia between the end of the nineteenth and the early twentieth centuries associated with the names of Paul Gauguin, Mark Twain, Jack London and Konstantin Balmont. Special attention is given to the contribution to the development of science due to zoological, anthropological and ethnographic studies carried out on the islands by the Russian scientist N.N. Miklouho-Maclay. It is shown how the contact with Oceania led a number of prominent figures to world fame. It is argued that over the last two hundred years the cultural codes of these unique islands have had a significant impact on philosophical thought, literature, visual and cinematic arts, as well as manifested themselves in various practical fields, such as sport or catering.
Keywords: Oceania, cultural codes, hula, kawa, mana, haka, tattoo, kiwi, kangaroo, Balmont.
Lebedeva A.À. Kinship Terminology of the Papuans of the Maclay Coast (In the Context of M.V. Kryukov’s Hypothesis)
Arina Lebedeva, Peter the Great Museum of Anthropology and Ethnography (Kunstkamera) of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Saint Petersburg, Russia. E-mail: Sheremet@kunstkamera.ru.
The paper focuses on the changes that have taken place in the system of kinship terms of the Papuans of the northeast coast of New Guinea over the past 50 years. In 1971, a resonant event for Soviet science took place: an expedition to the northeast coast of New Guinea, known in our country as the Maclay Coast. The event coincided with the centenary of the landing of N.N. Miklouho-Maclay — then still an unknown explorer — on this land. He became the first white man to set foot here, and his scientific heritage was included in the golden fund of Russian ethnography. The expedition of 1971 brought together the leading experts in the field of ethnography, anthropology, folklore, and history: N.A. Butinov, D.D. Tumarkin, B.N. Putilov, O.M. Pavlovsky, V.N. Basilov, M.V. Kryukov and others. The comprehensive approach of the Soviet expedition allowed to collect a wide range of materials on various cultural aspects of the region’s population. In particular, M.V. Kryukov analyzed the system of kinship terms and social structure of the Papuans of the Maclay Coast and made some assumptions about the possible dynamics of these phenomena in the future. The author of the paper worked on the Maclay Coast in 2017. The results of the research made it possible to compare the new data with the materials collected half a century ago. The comparative analysis showed that despite some rotation in the locality of settlements, the structure of the named aspects of culture in its basic form is preserved. The detected changes largely confirm M.V. Kryukov’s prediction.
Keywords: Papuans, kinship terms, social structure, field research.
Dudnikov S.V. Oceania in Soviet Popular Science Periodicals (Based on the Example of the Magazine “Around the World” (“Vokrug Sveta”) of 1956—1968)
Stanislav Dudnikov, independent researcher, Vologda, Russia. E-mail: email@example.com.
The paper analyzes the overall image of Oceania (including New Zealand and partly Australia), which was constructed during the “Thaw” period on the pages of the Soviet popular science magazine “Vokrug Sveta” (“Around the World”). The diversity of the material published in the magazine about the specified region and the constant interest in it are demonstrated. The magazine appears to be an important historical and imagological source and makes it possible to identify mass public ideas on the history and culture of Oceania, which were formed among the Soviet readers. This was important because Oceania remains a part of the world which is hard to reach for our compatriots. Due to the “thaw” issues of the magazine, this region simultaneously ceased to be Terra Australis Incognita and continued to be the “last paradise” on Earth, as well as the arena for adventures, exploits and discoveries. Based on various sources, the materials ranged from short abstracts of foreign articles about the region to detailed essays of ethnographers, historical geographers and travelers, from photographs to fiction by writers from Oceania. All that constructed complex and multidimensional images of the region. These images influenced the formation of ideas about Oceania not only among ordinary people but also among professional scientists. The study was carried out in a historical and imagological way and reveals the images of foreign cultural representation and attitudes towards the other.
Keywords: Oceania, historical imagology, scientific popularization, “Vokrug Sveta” (“Around the World”), Soviet reader
Lukonin S.A., Vakhrushin I.V. Russian-Chinese Trade and Economic Cooperation amid Anti-Russian Sanctions
Sergey Lukonin, Primakov National Research Institute of World Economy and International Relations of the Russian Academy of Sciences (IMEMO), Moscow, Russia. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Ivan Vakhrushin, Primakov National Research Institute of World Economy and International Relations of the Russian Academy of Sciences (IMEMO), Moscow, Russia. E-mail: email@example.com.
Between 2010 and 2021, the volume of Russian-Chinese trade increased by 2.5 times. Though China is Russia’s largest trading partner, Russia’s share in China’s trade turnover is extremely small. Russia ranks first in the supply of hydrocarbons to China, while China is the largest supplier of machinery products in Russia. Thus, a solid foundation of mutual trade was formed though with its immanent imbalances: during the analyzed period, the structure of bilateral trade has not changed significantly. Still there are some positive changes in the composition of Russian exports — increase in the share of agricultural, food and metallurgical industries, etc. The peculiarity of Russian-Chinese investment cooperation is the variety of sources of investment (offshore, informal business activity, etc.), which creates some difficulties when taking into account the total volume of mutual investments. However, it can be argued that Chinese investors are going beyond the boundaries of their traditional areas of capital application in Russia and are expanding their presence in the construction and industrial sectors. Currently, Western anti-Russian sanctions are a powerful constraint on the further development of bilateral cooperation. At the same time, Western sanctions pressure creates opportunity for forced transition to settlements in national currencies. In general, it can be predicted that for further effective interaction the two countries will develop new formats and mechanisms of cooperation in order to neutralize sanctions risks.
Keywords: Russian-Chinese trade, trade turnover structure, investment cooperation between Russia and China, foreign direct investment, accumulated investments, joint investment projects, anti-Russian sanctions.
Sergey Averchenko, Air Force’s Academy named after Professor N.Ye. Zhukovsky and Yu.A. Gagarin, Voronezh, Russia. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
The paper deals with the issues of preparation of Chinese aviation technical personnel by Soviet specialists for the operation of aviation equipment supplied from the USSR to China between 1937 and 1940. In the autumn of 1937, the Soviet Union began to deliver fighters and bombers of its own production to China. Soviet volunteer aviators fought on some of the planes, others were transferred to the Chinese Air Force. Chinese pilots were to take part in combat operations against Japan’s strong military aviation on Soviet aircraft. But the Chinese Air Force lacked qualified technical personnel. In addition, China had not previously purchased Soviet aviation equipment, which complicated the process of mastering its technical operation. For the same reason, China did not have its own instructors who could teach the technical staff of the Air Force the device and proper maintenance of Soviet aircraft. There was a need to train Chinese aircraft technicians and mechanics to work on Soviet equipment. Moreover, this preparation had to be carried out in the shortest possible time and in large volumes. Volunteer aviators who arrived from the USSR took up the training of the technical staff for the Chinese Air Force. The study summarizes the experience of training of the Chinese aviation technical personnel, which can be required in modern military-technical cooperation. In addition, the difficulties faced by instructors in the process of training Chinese cadets, ways of overcoming them by Soviet specialists together with the Chinese command were noted. The number of Chinese technicians and mechanics trained by Soviet volunteers has been revealed, and it is shown what role this technical staff played in the fighting of the Chinese Air Force.
Keywords: national liberation war, Chinese people, Japanese invaders, Soviet volunteers, training of aviation technical personnel, instructor, engineer, technician, mechanic, technical operation, aircraft.