V.L. Larin, L.L. Larina. Pacific Russia’s expert community about foreign policy, international relations, and Far East development (according to survey findings 2014—2015)
Victor Larin, Institute of History, Archaeology and Ethnography of the Peoples of the Far East, FEB RAS, Vladivostok, Russia. E-mail: email@example.com.
Lilija Larina, Institute of History, Archaeology and Ethnography of the Peoples of the Far East, FEB RAS, Vladivostok, Russia. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
The article analyses the survey findings of the members of the Expert Community from four cities of Pacific Russia — Vladivostok, Khabarovsk, Blagoveshchensk, and Magadan. The evaluations of the Kremlin’s Pacific policy, the state and prospects of the relations of the Russian Federation with the countries worldwide, and the perception of different states of the region are explored. Comparing the results with the surveys 2010 and 2013, authors note the differences of opinions of this group and the bulk of the population as well as certain transformation of notions of the experts due to the change of the geopolitical situation in the world. The survey 2014 — 2015 indicates that the society supports the Kremlin’s integration policy of Russia in the Asia-Pacific Region. As before, being afraid of possible consequences of the close connection of the Far East to the world economy — the transformation of the region into raw-material appendage of other states, bigger economic dependence of the Russian Federation on foreign countries, the growth of the number of migrants — the experts don’t see any alternative to these processes. Besides, China is regarded as a main economic partner and potential participant in the Far East territory development. The analysis of the source of information upon which the notions about the studied issues are developed revealed the dominance of central television, the Internet, and personal experience of international cooperation. The latter defines in many ways a specific character of the opinions of the Expert Community: three-quarters of the respondents have been to China at least once over the past ten years; 39 percent of the respondents have been to South Korea, while this figure doesn’t exceed 1 percent at the average in Russia.
Key words: Public opinion, Pacific Russia, Pacific Rim countries, foreign policy, international relations, security.
Boris Afonin, Institute of History, Archaeology and Ethnography of the Peoples of the Far East, FEB RAS, Vladivostok, Russia. E-mail: email@example.com.
The article analyses main domestic policy events as well as a social and economic situation in Japan in 2015. The re-election of Prime-minister Shinzo Abe as the President of the Liberal Democratic Party until 2018 indicates that the political situation in the country stays stable. In October, he made a reshuffle of the Cabinet; there were also changes in electoral rights of local population. A campaign for the elections in the House of Councillors started at the end of the year. The passage of the law by the National Diet which extended authority of national forces of self-defense drew a wide response on the domestic scene and abroad and provoked opposition and public protests. The social and economic situation in the country didn’t undergo any dramatic changes. Among the most important events of the year in Japan were the restart of two reactors at Sendai Nuclear Power Plant, the Nobel Prize award to two Japanese scientists, a scandal around the emblem of the 2020 Olympics, and the construction of the main Olympic stadium. Among the most significant international events of the year were news about the terrorist attacks related to the extremist group “Islamic Group” (prohibited in Russia), the migration crisis in Europe, resumption of diplomatic links of the US and Cuba, general elections in Myanmar, establishment of Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank, corruptive investigations in FIFA, etc.
Key words: Japan, Liberal Democratic Party, Prime-Minister, Diet, law of collective self-defense, Cabinet, forces of self-defense of Japan, opposition and public protests, economy, short forecast for 2016.
Marina Panteleeva, Department of Japanese Studies, Far Eastern Federal University, Vladivostok, Russia. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
The article examines the role of interest groups in public and political life of modern Japan, presents the classification according to the scopes of activity, gives the description of the main Japanese interest groups. The performance features and the main areas of activity of these associations are revealed; their interaction with political parties and other institutions of the Japanese society is analysed. The interest groups are state independent but try to have an impact on authorities and politics, support the connection between the bodies of government and the citizens providing institutionalized relations between the government and major sectors of the society. The most influential are profit oriented businesses, labor organisations and associations; public organisations also play an important role. It is revealed that the main efforts of interest groups are placed on legal framework development, licensing system, granting, administrative control. The Japanese interest groups are usually organized by geographical or professional principle; herewith, economic and business organisations are often focused on anti-protectionist activity. The groups’ ownership is marked as main principal entities of the interests’ representation to the corporate or pluralistic model which is determined by various objectives and influence mechanisms on power structures. Usually the business organisations refer to the corporate model of interests’ representation; the public organisations belong primarily to the pluralistic model. The author demonstrates the possibilities of upholding of business as well as public interests.
Key words: interest groups, corporate model, pluralistic model, administrative control, anti-protectionist activity.
L.V. Zabrovskaia. Influence of Perestroika on relations between the USSR and the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea
Larisa Zabrovskaia, Institute of History, Archaeology and Ethnography of the Peoples of the Far East, FEB RAS, Vladivostok, Russia. E-mail: email@example.com.
The article examines the change of the USSR policy towards the countries of the Korean Peninsula during Perestroika. The hardships of overcoming ideological inertia of soviet leaders are shown, the degree of pressure from the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea is revealed, the influence of the allied agreement of 1961 is shown as well as other political factors which prevented progressive development of the whole complex of Soviet-Korean relations are shown. These factors also moved back the date of establishment of relations between the USSR and the Republic of Korea that lowered considerably political and economic significance of this event. The establishment of official relations with Seoul led the USSR to the abnormal situation — simultaneous collaboration on equal terms with two Korean states. However, Moscow inclined to Seoul putting on the back burner the relations with Pyongyang that ruined power balance of the Korean Peninsula and slowed down the development of trade and economic relations as well as strengthened interparty disagreements. As a result, Moscow lost its influence on the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea and couldn’t control the development of a nuclear project. On the whole, perestroika and the politics of “new ways of thinking” had a negative effect on the relations with Pyongyang, but liberal politicians regarded positively this rupture of relations because, according to their opinion, North Korea was “the headache” of our government, and the connections with South Korea were promising.
Key words: USSR, Democratic People’s Republic of Korea, diplomatic relations, M. Gorbachev, Republic of Korea.
V.E. Boldyrev. Multiple-factor analysis of the foreign-policy process: a theoretical aspect of the issue
Vitalii Boldyrev, Institute of History, Archaeology and Ethnography of the Peoples of the Far East, FEB RAS, Vladivostok, Russia. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
This article presents a new method of the analysis of the foreign-policy process and the prediction of foreign policy. During its development the achievements of domestic and American schools of the political analysis and the history of foreign affairs are taken into consideration. They are divided into three categories: linear, non-linear, and those which don’t need strict formalization. The latter made it possible to define a principally new methodological foundation. It’s based on a mathematical function as a correlation y=f(x)upon which a matrix of multifactor analysis was developed with the following characteristics: the denial of rigid formalization, the record of the effect of the environment, the representation of the foreign-policy process in terms of sets of intervals and fractal, the use of multidisciplinary methodology. According to multifactor analysis, the mechanism of fractalisation of the foreign-policy process and the onset of intervals is set by its antinomies. The antinomies refer to the contradictions which affect a certain decision: the integer part of a quotient, constant and random, rational ad irrational. Their analysis enables to reveal restraints of the foreign- policy process, the reasons, the grounds and limits of interests, to retrace the transformation and to predict the final decision. But the model has a cluster character. Three variants of interaction of process actors are distinguished: inside determinant, between determinants, between classes. The analysis allows defining more precisely the limits of foreign-policy interests. On the whole, these theoretical propositionsmake possible to analyze the foreign-policy process as a dynamic phenomenon on the basis of the mathematical function, its derivative and antiderivative.
Key words: foreign-policy process, multifactor analysis, multifactor model, mathematical function, cluster, antinomy, interval, fractal.
Andrey Polutov, Institute of History, Archaeology and Ethnography of the Peoples of the Far East, FEB RAS, Vladivostok, Russia. E-mail: email@example.com.
The article deals with the Japanese archival documents firstly introduced in Russia and analyses the work of Japanese diplomacy and intelligence service in 1932 — 1945 against the Northern Sea Route which was of military strategic importance to protection and economic development of the Far East of the USSR. The information about the Northern Sea Route was collected through a large agent network inside the USSR as well as among Russian emigrants in Manchukuo and in the European countries, among the Koreans and the Chinese from the Soviet Far East or from abandoned adjacent territories. The analysis of dispatches of Japanese ambassadors and diplomats shows that their work on collection of information about the Northern Sea Route had a systematic character and was aimed at dealing with a wide range of questions. Particular attention was devoted to the assessment of military and economic importance of the Northern Sea Route in the context of the military strategy of Japan against the USSR. It is mentioned that there was continuity in the Japanese approach to development and realization of the national security doctrine towards the Russian sector of the Arctic. Many valuations and conclusions of diplomats, servicemen, and intelligence agents in imperial and postwar Japan remain vital and exist in the mediated form in modern Japanese documents and studies about the Arctic.
Key words: USSR, Japan, Arctic, Northern Sea Route, Far East, cargo shipping, military maritime fleet, polar aviation, diplomacy, intelligence service.
Elena Kolegova, Institute of History, Archaeology and Ethnography of the Peoples of the Far East, FEB RAS, Vladivostok, Russia. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
The article examines different points of view in the discussion about the future of the Arctic region which is currently being held in the academic circles, in the media, and among the public of Japan. The interests of this state of the Arctic exploration are analysed, the aspiration for playing the important role in the region by the government as well as by the representatives of the biggest business circles of Japan is revealed. Among the planned priorities of Tokyo in the Arctic are the development of the Northern Sea Route, the transmission of the ideas of its advantages among business communities, the preparation of the necessary port infrastructure for the advancement of the NSR, especially in the ports of Hokkaido which is prescribed to be “the outpost of Japan” in the region growth due to its similar climatic conditions. The budget increase on the Arctic exploration indicates the growing interest. It is also planned to activate the development of bilateral affairs on the problem of the polar region with Russia and other arctic states, to stimulate further development of the region in order to eliminate the current lag. Tokyo worries about China’s activity in the Arctic exploration. Japan would like to increase the interest of its inhabitants in the problems of the polar region (especially in the problems related to its national security and state interests), and it uses significant efforts to inform as many citizens as possible. The growing interest of Tokyo in the Arctic is hardly going to decline in the near future.
Key words: Arctic, Japan, Northern Sea Route, international cooperation, national interests.
A.I. Labiuk. The policy of the People’s Republic of China in the Arctic region: government and commercial projects
Alexandra Labiuk, Institute of History, Archaeology and Ethnography of the Peoples of the Far East, FEB RAS, Vladivostok, Russia. E-mail: email@example.com.
Today the Arctic is presented as a very promising region which territories are rich in natural resources; oil and gas reserves are exceptionally large. Due to the global warming and deglaciation, the Northern Sea Route and the Northwest Passage become accessible for navigation which will substantially shorten the distance and delivery time of cargo by sea, therefore, the shipping costs. It’s not surprising that many countries in the world paid attention to this region. The countries of East Asia are no exceptions which, despite the fact that they are not arctic powers, seek to take part in the Arctic Council. Certainly, China, as the most powerful Asian economy, can’t stand aside and miss real opportunities for the economic growth fueling and consolidation of its political positions. In the article the Chinese arctic policy is examined. Its possible vectors and key provisions are analysed. The history of the polar research studies of the People’s Republic of China as well as the creation of research and development organisations and government bodies which study the problems of this region is reviewed. The official and unofficial projects which China carries out in the arctic zone independently and together with scientific and commercial organisations of circumpolar and Arctic nations are presented. The opportunities and directions of further cooperation of China with these countries, including Russia in the Arctic, are evaluated.
Key words: People’s Republic of China, Arctic, Arctic nations, Nearctic nations, foreign policy, Northern Sea Route.
HISTORY AND CULTURE
Andrey Popovkin, Institute of History, Archaeology and Ethnography of the Peoples of the Far East, FEB RAS, Vladivostok, Russia. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
A solution of the problem of civil unity is impossible without reaching a civil consensus in the most significant worldview questions. The revelation of meaningful unity of Russian history could be its reason because it is connected with the historicity of a personality, its historical rootedness with the family, the nation. At the same time, inalienable human feature — spiritual freedom — points to individual’s irreducibility, its actions without any combination of exterior factors. This contradiction is solved in the philosophy of collegiality by S. N. Trubetskoy. Individual’s collegiality means that a man is always connected to the world and other people — from organic prenatal connection of the baby with the mother till the language which is only learnt during the communication but at the same time defines inscape of individual consciousness. However, a person expresses his thoughts, makes decisions with the use of the common language and common notions and realizes his spiritual freedom. Language, notions, values are adopted from own culture.
New humanism being based on conciliar understanding of a man establishes the measure of universal, human and individual; it shows how personal origin is implanted in collegiality of generic historical memory. Each culture is characterized not only by its own values (the set of values of all people is more or less the same) but also by hierarchy. The challenge of its exposure is uncommon. However, the understanding of the historical situation, it means own business of intelligentsia, which implementation is expected by authority and people, is impossible without that. That’s why, the most important contribution in the establishment of general civil unity in modern Russia belongs rightfully to the historical education. Its educational function consists in revelation of values hierarchy on the basis of historical experience which is shared by Russian people and transmission of the correct and responsible attitude to the young generation.
Key words: civil unity, humanism, collegiality, values, history, historical education.
A.V. Maklyukov. Initial stage of industrial electrification of the Far East (the end of the nineteenth century — the first quarter of the twentieth century)
Aleksey Maklyukov, Institute of History, Archaeology and Ethnography of the Peoples of the Far East, FEB RAS, Vladivostok, Russia. E-mail: email@example.com.
The article deals with the questions of the industrial electrification of the Far East at its initial stage (the end of the nineteenth century — the first quarter of the twentieth century). It is shown that electricity started to be used at the enterprises of the region for lighting and machines operation at the end of the nineteenth century. Industrial utilization of electricity began in mining. Big plants and mines introduced various electromotor technics — machines, hoists, pumps, perforators, etc. First and foremost, electrification involved gold mining enterprises, coal mining enterprises, non-ferrous metals enterprises, ship repairing, building materials production. Intensification of technological infrastructure and available power of state and private factories and plants indicated the intensive involvement of the Far East into the process of Russian modernization. However, advanced initiatives in electricity use spread poorly; only single enterprises used electric motors. Steam power and manual labor predominated in production. Nevertheless, the industrial electrification of the region at the initial stage promoted power availability per worker, production growth, and finally local economy development. The use of electric power at the plants and mines turned out to be effective: those Far-Eastern enterprises which started the change from the force of steam to the force of electricity managed to achieve good results. It is concluded that at the first stage of the industrial electrification there was certain success, the experience was gained in the use of electrical engineering in production.
Key words: Far East industry, electrical power engineering, electrification, production.
E.N. Chernolutskaia. Evolution of penal forms of provision of Soviet Far East with a manpower at the end of the 1950s — in the first half of the 1980s
Elena Chernolutskaia, Institute of History, Archaeology and Ethnography of the Peoples of the Far East, FEB RAS, Vladivostok, Russia. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
The object of this article is to study the example of the Far East and what role the system of execution of punishment played in the economy of the USSR and in the support of labour after dismantlement of the Soviet Gulag. Three forms of penal employment in the late Soviet period are analysed: 1) labour in forced-labour camps; 2) obligatory labour without detention in custody (conditional discharge and suspended sentence); 3) labour service in penal colony settlements. First two forms played a major role, the third one didn’t evolve. In comparison to the Gulag times the number of forced-labour camps decreased, and their significance dropped: from now on, they functioned on local level. A principle of labour obligation of convicted people stayed fixed by law, but its forms in conditions of general liberalization of the political system were softened. Working environment of forced-labour camps was slowly integrated in planned economy of territories and regions. Generally, integration was occasional in the form of home manufacture of forced-labour camps and transfer of sentenced people under contracting agreements in civil sectors, mainly into construction. On the whole, as the materials of the Primorsky Region show, the significance of penal work force in economy of the region wasn’t great; it was approximately only 4% in the employed population at large, but in construction it reached 20%. At the stage of post-Soviet modernization the mobilization and coercive methods of labour management in the country changed taking into consideration demographic, social and political, and mental facts of time. In particular, the scale of organized forms of job placement (free as well as potential). The trends of the development of labour-forced camps were a part of manifestation of this process.
Key words: penal system, forced labour, labour resources, supply of labour, Far East of USSR, post-Soviet period.
G.A. Andriets. First libraries on the territory of the Chinese Eastern Railway (the end of the nineteenth century — the beginning of the twentieth century)
Galina Andriets, Institute of History, Archaeology and Ethnography of the Peoples of the Far East, FEB RAS, Vladivostok, Russia. E-mail: email@example.com.
The article examines the process of establishment of librarianship on the territory of the Chinese Eastern Railway, analyses the influence of a book on everyday life of railway employees. The libraries served as evidence of widespread occurrence of the Russian book culture in Manchuria, development of Russian- Chinese contacts in culture and book industry. Pioneer right-of-way settlers going through hardships in daily life found their salvation and solace in reading. Books became the base of the first cultural consolidation of Russian settlers in Manchuria which appeared as an interests’ group of several people. The distribution of Russian books in Manchuria started with the public library in Sungari workshops. The library of the Club of main mechanic workshops of the Chinese Eastern Railway was the main center of cultural and educational work and organisation of the amateur performances of workers. Soldier’s libraries were established by taking into consideration the troop service of Trans Amur military district which had been living in the underdeveloped region for months. Libraries as a traditional form of mass communication performed both leisure and educational functions. The Society of the reading room of the workers of the Chinese Eastern Railway was established in order to boost the cultural level of the inhabitants; a travelling library for book supply of liner rail agents was also created there. Acute books shortage at the stations was compensated by constant run of the library carriage. Not only Russian libraries but also national libraries — for the representatives of different nations of the Russian Empire were set up. This study paper proves that the appearance of the first libraries was of great importance for cultural life on the territory of the Chinese Eastern Railway.
Key words: library, culture, everyday life, book, Chinese Eastern Railway, cultural and educational work, cultural space, leisure.
Tatyana Krayushkina, Institute of History, Archaeology and Ethnography of the Peoples of the Far East, FEB RAS, Vladivostok, Russia. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
The paper reviews the image of the perestroika man which is presented by chastushki of that time depicting several significant aspects of the analysed period. It is revealed that the attitude of people towards perestroika as well as to the people who started it and ruined the habitual style of life was negative. Common people condemned M. S. Gorbachev and the communists and didn’t expect anything positive from the transformations. The antialcoholic company in most texts is evaluated as a negative event which led to the opposite results. A group of chastushka is devoted to alimentary products, clothes, goods of prime necessity, and related events including disappearance of goods, their destruction, devaluation. The August 1991 Coup wasn’t approved by people who considered it to be a game for power without taking into consideration the interests of common people. These aspects represent the portrait of the perestroika man who blamed establishment for his problems. A person of this period is depicted as passive, considering himself a victim of circumstances, being unable to be responsible and to try to change life. The woman’s figure of the perestroika epoch is more optimistic: she has a positive outlook and is able to find good moments even in negative developments of the reality.
Key words: Russian folklore, chastushka, perestroika, prohibition, Gorbachev.
Ol’ga Svyatukha, Far Eastern Federal University, Vladivostok, Russia. E-mail: email@example.com.
The article examines the dance butoh which appeared in Japan in the late fifties on the basis of a synthesis of national traditions and cultural attitudes of the West. In fast-growing industrial Japan the questions of interrelationship of the individual and the society, the possibilities of individuality manifestation were on the agenda. In order to solve these problems the country relied on the vast experience of European culture. At the same time, after World War II there was a necessity in conservation of the ethnic cultural traditions along with dynamic westernization. Art, as well as choreography, searched the ways of artistic understanding of the new problems. The founders of butoh, the dancers Hijikata Tatsumi and Ohno Kazuo, basing on western choreography sought the new forms and the new philosophy of dancing where they tried to embody not only ethnical features of the perception of corporality but also the comprehension of the interaction between an individual and the world, which is significant for the Japanese tradition. Butoh demonstrates both the break with the national theatrical and choreographic traditions (the value of the school, gesture semantics) as well as the succession — the necessity of reaching the meditative condition by a performer. The article analyses the problem of the relations between eastern and western cultural attitudes which were implemented in the new choreography, the peculiarities of the condition of the butoh performer which is characterized as a trance state, and the specific methods which allow the performer to reach the necessary condition.
Key words: intercultural interactions, Japan, butoh dance.
ARCHAEOLOGY AND ETHNOGRAPHY
A.Yu. Fedorchenko. Scraping tools of the VI occupation layer of Ushkovskie sites (Central Kamchatka): brief results of functional studies
Alexander Fedorchenko, North-East Interdisciplinary Scientific Research Institute, FEB RAS, Magadan, Russia. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
The article introduces the results of the functional analysis of the scraping tools of the late Ushkovskaya culture (Central Kamchatka). A collection of stone artefacts including a series of scrapers and side-scrapers was received due to the longtime excavation of the VI Paleolithic layer of Ushkovskie sites. Most of these tools of such type were found during the study of the remains of dwellings as well as burials. The attempts of classification of scraping tools, definition of functions on the basis of morphology and wear marks were done in the 1970s. In 1989, N. A. Kononenko (Vladivostok) performed trace evidence analysis of stone inventory of the late Ushkovskaya culture. The wear marks from skin scraping were recorded on typologically marked scraping tools as well as on wedge-shaped micro cores, their preforms, shatters, chippers, microplates, retouched flakes, and fissures without processing. One artefact with scraping morphology was interpreted as wood chisel. Some tools with glossing microtraces and scraping kinematics were used for dredging. Our studies of scrapers of the VI layer allow to judge about the specialization during the process of leathermaking, point out the discrepancies of some typological definitions of stone ware with their real functional purpose, reveal the peculiarities of the reissue process of the tools in the industry of the late Ushkovskaya culture.
Key words: Kamchatka, Beringia, Ushkovskie sites, the Upper Paleolithic, scraping tools, scrapers, side-scrapers, wedge-shaped cores, experimental trace evidence analysis.
V.I. Diakov, O.V. Diakova. Stages of the settlement in South Primorye (based on materials of Petrovskiy archaeological microdistrict)
Vladimir Diakov, Vladivostok Branch of the Russian Customs Academy, Vladivostok, Russia. E-mail: email@example.com
Olga Diakova, Institute of History, Archaeology and Ethnography of the Peoples of the Far East, FEB RAS, Vladivostok, Russia. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
The article analyses the monuments of Petrovskiy archaeological microdistrict which allow defining the stages of settlement and development of Primorye. The Early Metal Age is presented by Petrovka?1 settlement and Petrovka?2, 3, 4, 9 necropoleis. The barrows had stone steles and trenches. The analysis of ceramics and shoulder hoes as well as stratigraphical and planigraphical observations make it possible to relate the monument to the lidovsko-yankovskiy type and to date it to the First century BC. The barrow ¹ 4 of Petrovka?9 necropolis with the fragments of earthen ware of the 10th—12th centuries belongs to the Middle Ages. The late Middle Ages are presented by Petrovka?5, 7, 8. Petrovka?5 is a single-cell furnace for ceramics burning related to the post-state period of the Far Eastern Middle Ages. Ethnographical complex is presented by two monuments: “Under millstone” and Petrovka?6 — their material corresponds to the end of the 19th century. Petrovskiy archaeological microdistrict makes it possible to conclude that this territory was settled four times by different ethnicities (Early Metal, the end of the First century BC, the Middle Ages, the First century AD, the late Middle Ages, ethnographic time). Stone barrows of the Early Metal Age were most likely built by paleo Asiatic tribes (Jankowski’s culture) who adopted this type of funeral constructions from Siberian and Central Asian tribes; such tradition was widely spread in archaeological cultures of Androno-Karasukskiy and Scythian circle. The mediaeval barrow corresponds to the materials of Monastyrka?3 necropolis left by the representatives of the Mokhesk culture (the Manchu-Tungus people) who lost pottery, ceramic ware. Residential construction of the 19th century was probably used by the Manchu-Tungus peoples in winter during hunting.
Key words: Primorye, periodization, Petrovski archaeological sub-region, Early Metal Epoch, Yankovski culture, Mediaeval Epoch, Ethnographical assemblage.
Nadezhda Vukvukai, North-East a comprehensive research Institute, FEB RAS, Anadyr, Russia. Å-mail: kerkår@inbox.ru.
The article examines the Chukchi traditional children clothing of various age groups and its peculiarities based on literary sources, collections of museums funds, and field data of the author during 1996 — 2015. The national terminology of the whole costume as well as its details is examined thoroughly. The material demonstrates transformation of the clothing from the breastfeeding age until the awkward age. Along with the general forms of the children clothing, the family and territory characteristics of the children clothing are shown. The essential features typical for the reindeer culture are distinguished. The peculiarities of the clothing description in literary sources are mentioned: the representatives of external culture pay attention to the visual appearance while the authors from indigenous population concentrate on symbolic aspects of the clothing which had a sacred meaning for the Chukchi. Symbolism of clothing is described in the article in the examples of technological characteristics of clothing manufacturing and its use in the ritual practice. It is shown that there is a connection between the rituals of the child’s naming and the characteristics of its costume. It is concluded that traditional Chukchi children clothing well-adjusted to the harsh climate and specific way of life of reindeer breeders and coastal hunters hasn’t lost its functional role and spiritual constituent in modern life of indigenous inhabitants of Chukotka.
Key words: Chukchi, children clothing, age categories and local differences, semantics, symbolic and sacred peculiarities of clothing.
Lidiya Fetisova, Institute of History, Archaeology and Ethnography of the Peoples of the Far East, FEB RAS, Vladivostok, Russia. E-mail: email@example.com.
This paper examines narrative folklore of the Oroks (the Ulta) in relation to folklore culture of other ethnic groups of the Far East. The author pays attention to the established anthropological proximity of the Ulta people towards the Northern Baikal type while the Ulta language and folklore heritage make it possible to evaluate their traditions as a part of culture of the South group of the Manchu-Tungus people. Such discrepancy is observed in ritual practice where both north and south traditions function, but the latter dominates. The analyzed examples of ningman fairytale epos provide strong evidence of cultural relationship of the Sakhalin Oroks (the Ulta) with the indigenous peoples of Amur — the Ulchis and the Nanais. The south traditions are not only in the plot and set of patterns of large part of folk works but also in the realities of Northeast China; that indicates long ethno-cultural contacts with the population of this territory. The analysis of the prose telungu revealed the plots with such characters as tiger and “red dogs” that show the south origin of the Oroks (the Ulta) ethno culture. The author makes an assumption about possible switch to foreign language of a group of the North Tungusic peoples who migrated to the lower Amur and later participated in the formation of the Ulta ethnos. This hypothesis is confirmed by the presence of substrate traces of the North Tungusic heroic epos in the Oroks (the Ulta) folklore.
Key words: Oroks, Ulta, Manchu-Tungus, narrative folklore, genre composition, epic hero, ethno-cultural contacts.
Roman Gvozdev, Institute of History, Archaeology and Ethnography of the Peoples of the Far East, FEB RAS, Vladivostok, Russia. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
The article examines the traditional folklore as a valuable source of information about military knowledge of the Nanais during the decay of the primitive communal system in the middle of the nineteenth century. It is mentioned that some tribal conflicts of the Nanais with the outlanders were common for this period; the immigrants from China were also among them. The Nanais had no constant paramilitary forces and professional warriors, but hunting allowed them to preserve all their military skills; a tradition of the mutual support favoured successful organization of collective repulse in case of tribal conflicts. Appeal to folklore sources showed that most of materials are presented by historical legends — a genre which is characterized by the absence of fantastic characters; that’s why, it is perceived as authentic historical evidence. The main content of the Nanai legends was tribal relations and conflicts because of nongranting of a woman and vengeance for spilled blood. It is also ascertained that this ethnos had effective preventing methods against such confrontation. Authoritative representatives of kindred groups and women had the main role in a peacekeeping process. Basing on the analysis of folklore material, the author tried to reveal the outstanding characteristics of traditional military knowledge of the Nanais including military features and fight with the enemy.
Key words: Nanais, traditional military knowledge, tribal conflicts, folklore, historical legends, epic hero, blood vengeance.
PLATFORM FOR YOUNG RESEARCHERS
U.M. Andriets. Komsomol organisations as a political resource in collectivization of the agriculture in the Far East
Ul’jana Andriets, Far Eastern Institute of Management — branch of Russian Academy of National Economy and Public Administration under the President of Russian Federation, Khabarovsk, Russia. E-mail: email@example.com.
The article basing on the unpublished archive materials and documents of the primary Komsomol organisations examines the participation of the Komsomol of the Far East in realization of the most dramatic event of political administration of the Soviet Union — collectivization of agriculture. It is revealed that the Komsomol being the only legal youth organization was actively used by authorities for solving all possible economic and political problems. The Komsomol organizations were involved into socialized agricultural production as well as into the attack of well-to-do farm-style elements. The Komsomol youth had a role of direct executives in the creation of the communes and groundless dekulakization which were authorized to use coercive measures towards those who disagreed. On the one hand, the young Komsomol members were a part of the farming world; on the other hand, they had to oppose themselves forcedly because the All-Union Leninist Young Communist League as the helper and the reserve of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union had to take active part in the radical village transformation. The activity of the Komsomol organization during collectivization provoked contradictions between peasantry and the Komsomol members as well as inside the youth association. A part of the Komsomol members were support of the party and state policy towards collectivization of its agricultural sector. Nevertheless, there were others who took a side of peasant resistance expressing dissent from the reforms.
Key words: Komsomol, collectivization, dekulakization, construction of collective farms, bread procurement.
E.A. Suvorova. Principle directions of policy of reforms and educational development in People’s Republic of China in the last quarter of the twentieth century
Ekaterina Suvorova, Institute of History, Archaeology and Ethnography of the Peoples of the Far East, FEB RAS, Vladivostok, Russia. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
The article examines the development of the educational system of the People’s Republic of China during the reforms of the last quarter of the twentieth century. The main directions of educational policy of the People’s Republic of China after the third session of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China of the XI congress in 1978 are shown. The character and the scope of the educational reforms carried out by the leadership of the Communist Party of China during the XII Congress in 1982 until the 1990s are presented. The main education laws of the People’s Republic of China adopted in this period are studied: “Compulsory education law”, “Education law”, “Higher education law”. Special attention is paid to the description of the political course of the Communist Party of China which is aimed at the growth of compulsory education (of nine years) everywhere in China. The achievements of the leaders of the Communist Party of China in compulsory education due to the “Education law” as well as existent problems in the growth of basic education in economically backward areas are presented. It is evaluated how the leaders of the People’s Republic of China reconsidered the policy and goals in higher education. It is emphasized that the government of China reviewed the role of education in the Chinese society; as a result, education became a key factor of economic growth. The results are analysed, and the evaluation of reforms of secondary, professional, and higher education in the People’s Republic of China in terms of economic modernization of the country and transition to market relations is given.
Key words: education, reformation, session, law, resolution, education financing.
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