ETHNOCULTURAL TRADITIONS OF POPULATION OF EURASIA: FROM ANTIQUITY TO MODERN TIMES
O.V. Dyakova. Preface
O.V. Dyakova, V.E. Shavkunov. Ethnocultural Landscape of the Poltsevskaya Culture of Eastern Primorye (A Case Study of Metal Products of the Mikhailovsky Settlement)
Olga Dyakova, Institute of History, Archaeology and Ethnology of the Peoples of the Far East, FEB RAS, Vladivostok, Russia. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Vladimir Shavkunov, Institute of History, Archaeology and Ethnology of the Peoples of the Far East, FEB RAS, Vladivostok, Russia. E-mail: email@example.com.
Based on the data about the Mikhailovsky settlement, the paper reveals the ethnocultural landscape of the Poltsevskaya culture of Eastern Primorye. The key role of the Poltsevskaya culture in the ethnocultural history of the Far East was strongly determined by its chronological position which coincided with a new historical period — the transition from Antiquity to the Middle Ages. It is established that the Mikhailovsky settlement existed in the sixth century, i.e., in the era of the Migration Period. This is the first archaeological site of the Poltsevskaya culture of the Early Middle Ages in Primorye. The prototypes of metal products (shell plates, arrowheads, knives, chisels) were found in the Poltsevskaya culture of the Amur region, and their analogies were discovered in the Smolninskaya culture of Primorye. It is found out that the population of the Poltsevskaya culture was preserved until the sixth century AD inclusive, and its development continued under new historical conditions. The expansion of the Mohe tribes during the Migration Period to Primorye and the Amur region contributed to the formation of the new ethnocultural landscape. The Mohe people, i.e., Manchu-Tungus, lived in Eastern Primorye together with the population of the Poltsevskaya culture. New ethnocultural population groups were formed among the Manchu-Tungus people due to assimilative processes that combined Poltsevskaya and Mohe traditions (Blagoslovenninskaya and Nayfeldskaya groups of sites prove this fact). In the early thirteenth century, the mountain settlements of the Jurchens of the Eastern Xia (1215—1234) appeared there: Skalistoe and Shcherbakovskoye. However, it is not known whether the population of the Poltsevkskaya culture remained or whether it was displaced to the lower reaches of the Amur. The traditions of the Poltsevksaya culture were traced through the metal products of the Paleo-Asiatic peoples of the Far East (the Nivkhs) from the Lower Amur and Sakhalin.
Keywords: Poltsevskaya culture, Mohe culture, Jurchens, Mikhailovsky settlement, Eastern Primorye, arrowheads, knives.
Oleg Tarasov, Khabarovsk Institute of Infocommunications (branch of FSBEI HE “Siberian State University of Telecommunications and Informatics”), Khabarovsk, Russia. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
The paper is devoted to the problem of classification of geographical names, systematization of the main approaches existing in toponymic research. The main attention is paid to the analysis of toponymy of the indigenous peoples of the Russian Far East. The relevance of the research is determined by the fact that a toponym is often the only linguistic information about an ethnic group and its culture, given that many languages become extinct or dead. In general, more than twenty indigenous nationalities live in the Far East of the Russian Federation, many of which, due to a number of objective and subjective reasons, change their ways of managing, assimilate and adopt methods of economic survival in modern conditions, which are typical for the late twentieth and the early twenty-first centuries. When studying the toponymic space of the region, the principles of “level methodology” were used, four main directions in the classification of household geographical names were analyzed, and optimal examples from various language groups and cultures of ethnic groups of the Far East (Chukotka, Evenk, Eskimo, Yakut, etc.) were given. The paper presents possible semantic (lexical and historical) interpretations of names based on available ethnic information. The paper identifies the features of geographical names in the framework of economic toponymy, in which it is also possible to allocate subgroups of name values by criteria: food (bioresources), material (geo-resources), auxiliary economic (bioresources of agricultural type: wood, moss), additional economic (places of trade, exchange, negotiations, etc.). This confirms the need for further study of the toponymy of areas of late settlement.
Keywords: Russian Far East, indigenous peoples, toponymic space, household toponymics.
K.S. Kartavcev. The Society of the Commander Islands in the Twenty-First Century: Social Structure in the Context of Ethnic Relations
Kirill Kartavcev, Institute of History, Archaeology and Ethnology of the Peoples of the Far East, FEB RAS, Vladivostok, Russia. E-mail: email@example.com.
The issue of ethnic and social relations in a multi-ethnic society and the structure of ethnic and social groups remains relevant at the present stage. Geographical isolation and inaccessibility of the Commander Islands formed a specific society which is united in its infrastructure, transport and economic problems but is clearly differentiated, first of all, into social and then ethnic groups. The paper examines intra-group ethnic and social relations among local residents. Special attention is paid to the territorial issue of the transformation of the Commander Islands Nature Biosphere Reserve named after S.V. Marakov to the national park, and the participants’ viewpoints on this process are analyzed. Some local residents consider the change of the reserve’s status to be a threat for the ecosystem of the islands and their property, while the officials justify this transformation by the fact that they want to solve the “legal conflict” that has appeared since the creation of the reserve in 1993. Methodologically, the study is based on the sociological paradigms of R. Merton and L. Coser. The author’s field data and the municipal newspaper “Aleutskaya Zvezda” were used as the main sources. Despite internal differences, the local residents unite around the common problem. It is concluded that conflicts tend to consolidate and to some extent to deter the social structure from disintegration.
Keywords: Aleuts, Commander Islands, tribal communities.
A.V. Tutorskiy, E.A. Kuznetsova. The Long Journey to Equality: Decolonization of Scientific Approach to the Issue of Acculturation
Andrey Tutorskiy, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow, Russia. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Elena Kuznetsova, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow, Russia. E-mail: email@example.com.
Based on the archive and literary sources, this paper analyses the main European studies of Melanesian “cargo cults” from the second half of the twentieth century until the beginning of the twenty-first century. This enables to follow the transformation of the western understanding of the term “cargo cult” as a Melanesian phenomenon, to get an impression of scientific approaches, the current state of the issue and prospects for the research. The classic studies of the Melanesian “cargo cults” appeared in the middle of the twentieth century when the works of P. Lawrence and P. Worsley were published. Further research was influenced by the approach of “cultural critique” which developed at the end of the twentieth century. The paper shows how this approach describes “cargo cults” and how the scientific works contributed to the understanding of this phenomenon. The sources enable to talk about the existence of “cargo movements” which adapt to the urban environment and the conditions of the modern life in the early twenty-first century. Nowadays the scholars move away from the ideas of cultural critique and search the method which will allow to describe modern Melanesian realities differently and to set new objectives.
Keywords: cargo cult, cargo movement, Melanesia, Oceania, decolonization, acculturation, custom, equality, interpretation of cultures, Melanesian Christianity, modernity.
Victor Krivonogov, Institute for the Humanities, Siberian Federal University, Krasnoyarsk, Russia. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
In July-August 2019, an expedition was carried out to study modern ethnic processes among the inhabitants of Christmas Island, Australia. This paper showcases the results of the study conducted to analyze the Chinese population of the uninhabited territory, the largest ethnic group of the island. A comprehensive research method was used, and a mass population survey for 25% sampling was conducted. The population appeared only at the end of the nineteenth century, and it was associated with the discovery of phosphate deposits by the British. The extraction of phosphates demanded manual labor which led to the employment of Chinese coolies. Until the second half of the twentieth century, the population was unstable: both workers and officers were employed under contracts for short periods. There was a large gap between a male and female population — men predominated significantly, a number of women and children was low. In addition to the Chinese majority, insignificant groups of the Malays and the Indians appeared. The roles of leaders and specialists were performed by a small number of the British people (later the Anglo-Australians). The total population of the island during almost the entire twentieth century and at the beginning of the twenty-first century was 1.4—1.5 thousand people. Eventually in the 1970s, the migrants ceased to depart from the island after expiration of their contracts. This led to a balance in sex composition, and a natural generational change began. By the end of the twentieth century, the flow of new migrants stopped due to depletion of deposits of phosphate and decrease in production volumes. Nowadays the island’s population consists of 55—60% of the Chinese people, the rest are mainly the Malays and the Anglo-Australians. The Chinese managed to preserve the foundations of their culture, language, religion, but the changes are also noticeable: the English language spreads more and more, mixed ethnic marriages have appeared. Young people migrate massively to Australia; therefore, the birth rate decreases and the population ages.
Keywords: Chinese, Christmas Island, Christmas, modern ethnic processes, demography, language processes, mixed families, integration, assimilation.
Andrey Volynchuk, Institute of History, Archaeology and Ethnology of the Peoples of the Far East, FEB RAS, Vladivostok, Russia. E-mail: email@example.com.
The paper is devoted to the analysis of possible directions of transformation of the contemporary global order. The author’s definition of the global order is given, which means the special state of the system of international relations, where the interaction of states and other international actors is carried out on the basis of a set of generally accepted norms and rules enshrined in multilateral international treaties and other documents of international organizations; its principles extend to the vast majority of international actors, in order to prevent threats to security and peaceful joint development and in the interests of members of the world community. The structure, content, characteristics, types and stages of the formation of the global order are considered. The main actors are determined. They are not only interested in changing / maintaining the existing geopolitical hierarchy, but also, firstly, actively develop their own methodological justifications for future transformations within the framework of national schools of the theory of international relations, and, secondly, have the necessary resource and organizational potential. First of all, this refers to China whose steady economic growth has led to a change in its foreign policy status. Nowadays China is perceived by the world as a strong power with significant potential for global influence. Status transformations have become a powerful catalyst for the development of the theory of international relations with “Chinese characteristics”, focused on the search and implementation of national priorities. Russia believes that the existing unipolar model does not reflect the real balance of power on the geopolitical map of the world. A number of independent centers of power have already existed in the international arena, requiring not only consideration of their national interests but also equal participation in global governance. India, maintaining the priority of sustainable economic development, forms its own foreign policy imperatives that force it to maneuver between the leading powers but, at the same time, to strive in order to get the maximum benefit from any state of the global order. France’s ambitions are aimed at pursuing an independent, primarily from the United States, foreign policy and assuming the role of a “balancer” in maintaining a global balance between old and new centers of power.
Keywords: global order, national schools of the international relations theory, international relationships, global governance, multipolar world, global challenges.
Maxim Potapov, Center of Asia-Pacific Studies, Primakov National Research Institute of World Economy and International Relations, Russia, Moscow. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
The paper analyzes the economic development of East Asian countries in 2014—2019 with a forecast for 2020 in the context of factors of economic growth and foreign trade. The paper is based on statistical data from international economic organizations. It is noted that in general the prospects for the East Asian region are quite stable. Domestic demand balances the negative impact of reduced external export demand due to trade restrictions. Despite continued dependence on foreign trade, many East Asian countries have reached a stage of development where domestic private consumption has become a strong driver of growth. China continues to be the engine of the world economy as the world’s largest producer and consumer of goods. In the context of expanding protectionism and import restrictions on the goods made in China, the leading role of domestic investment and growing consumer demand in maintaining economic growth allows China to overcome the crisis in the world economy without much loss. It is concluded that trade contradictions as well as uncertainty about the future of the multilateral trading system will give a new impetus to bilateral and multilateral integration initiatives. The countries of the East Asian region will be increasingly inclined to conclude bilateral and regional trade agreements for further development. It is regional economic integration that can become an additional engine for the development of East Asia. A key factor for its success is the presence of large emerging markets in the region. The emergence of a large middle class with growing incomes and purchasing power in East Asian countries leads to a growing demand for a wide range of consumer and industrial goods and services. This increasing demand generates rapid growth in intraregional trade and provides the basis for further deepening regional economic integration.
Keywords: foreign trade, domestic consumption, East Asia, investment demand, Chinese economy, world economy, non-tariff measures, consumer demand, protectionism, trade war, economic integration, economic growth.
Leonid Gamza, Primakov National Research Institute of World Economy and International Relations RAS, Moscow, Russia. E-mail: email@example.com.
The paper is devoted to the analysis of the confrontation between the United States and China in the field of innovation and advanced technologies, which are the most important component of the development strategy of each country and one of the main directions in their struggle for leadership in the world. The dynamics of policy and measures of American authorities aimed at undermining the positions of Chinese leading high-tech companies in the United States and abroad are considered. The example of ZTE and Huawei companies, which are world leaders in the development and deployment of the new fifth-generation telecommunication network 5G, shows that the confrontation in technology between the United States and China is a manifestation of intense competition at the interstate level, which will increase. At the same time, the US politics and tough pressure do not meet with understanding and support from many countries of the world that is clearly seen in the Asia-Pacific region (APR), which is one of the main sales markets and the arena of confrontation between the two countries. Most of the states of the region are guided by their national and economic interests in their assessments and decisions and consider the American pressure on Chinese companies as politically motivated and dictated by the needs of the internal development of the US economy. In the context of tough confrontation between the United States and China, the state and prospects for the development of ties between Chinese high-tech companies and Russia are considered as an alternative. The author’s conclusion is that under the conditions of sanctions and severe American pressure, Russia, China and their companies, deploying 5G networks, are objectively interested in cooperation and realize it in the field of innovations in the form of complimenting the scientific, economic and technologic potentials of the two countries that meets their strategic development goals and will improve and grow further in the medium and long term.
Keywords: China, Russia, US, Asia-Pacific region, ‘trade war’, sanctions, ZTE, Huawei, wireless 5G networks, interaction, cooperation.
Zou Xiuting. Russian-Chinese Cross-Border Economic Cooperation Zones: Prospects for Cooperation between Russia and China
Zou Xiuting, Russian Institute of Heilongjiang Provincial Academy of Social Sciences, Harbin, China. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
In the past, the border port cities of Russia and China had only traditional trading methods such as passage of goods and passengers. After China launched the “One Belt, One Road” Initiative, we should analyze the situation and the possibilities to strengthen the trade cooperation between China and Russia and to introduce new ways for that. The construction of the cross-border zones of economic cooperation and expansion of the cross-border production chain should become a significant trend in coordination between Russia and China. These zones will contribute to more profound cooperation between Heilongjiang province and Russia, strengthening and optimization of the cross-border processing industry chain and the cross-border logistics system in order to create a new open industrial system in Heilongjiang province. Heilongjiang province proposes to build the cross-border economic cooperation zones in Suifenhe, Heihe, Dongning, Tongjiang, Fuyuan and other border areas together with the Russian colleagues. The project of the cross-border economic cooperation zones is currently at the preliminary stage. The cross-border economic cooperation zones can exert extraterritorial influence as they cross national and territorial boundaries and are associated with many diplomatic, legal, economic, managerial and technical problems. It can be said that the construction of these cross-border economic cooperation zones is a complex system project.
Keywords: Heilongjiang Province, Russian Far East, cross-border economic cooperation zone.
ON THE 75TH ANNIVERSARY OF WORLD WAR II
I.V. Kryukov. It’s All about Staff: Contribution of Far Eastern Military Schools to the Training of Command Personnel in 1941—1945
Ivan Kryukov, Khabarovsk Regional Museum Named after N.I. Grodekov, Khabarovsk, Russia. E-mail: email@example.com.
The paper deals with the process of personnel training in military schools in the Far East of the USSR during the Great Patriotic War of 1941—1945. The sources of reinforcement of command personnel for the battle-front are analyzed, including the students of military educational institutions. The paper describes the changes in the structure of the system of military education as a whole in comparison with the pre-war period as well as the specifics of the formation of military educational institutions. The features of the training of command personnel are examined, including a two-stage system for selecting candidates, i.e. in military commissariats of the Far East or military units. On the basis of new archival materials, the dynamics of the number of cadets trained in the military schools of the Far East from 1941 until 1945 is traced. The main content of the educational process in military educational institutions is revealed. The problems are shown during the implementation of the educational process: unsatisfactory material and technical support of schools, the inability of recruitment of military units of rear areas by qualified professionals as the officers were sent to the army field forces, short training time, a low level of teaching staff, constant change of management and relocation of schools. The paper describes the changes of the activities of Far Eastern military schools at different stages of the Great Patriotic War and due to the new needs of the army field forces.
Keywords: Far East, military schools, cadets, Great Patriotic War, Far Eastern battle-front, fighting reserves, military training, offensive operation, Soviet forces.
L.E. Fetisova. “My Eastern War…”. Participation of Cultural Workers in the Far Eastern Campaign of 1945
Lidiya Fetisova, Institute of History, Archaeology and Ethnology of the Peoples of the Far East, FEB RAS, Vladivostok, Russia. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
In the year of the 75th anniversary of the Great Victory, Russian politicians have paid attention again to the crucial importance of the successful actions of the Soviet Armed Forces during the Far Eastern military campaign of 1945. The World War II ended with the surrender of militarist Japan. For the Soviet people, especially for the Far Eastern inhabitants, the victory over Japan was of the outmost significance. The victory helped to restore the sense of national pride which had suffered significantly after the War of 1904—1905. The paper is devoted to the cultural workers who were the participants of the final battles of 1945, accompanied the advance of Soviet troops in Manchuria, North Korea, Mongolia and perpetuated the memory of this heroic time. The author noted the first articles and essays about the successful offensive of the Soviet troops, which were published in the army newspapers and combat leaflets and raised the fighting spirit of soldiers. Special attention is paid to the front-line poetry that reflected the feelings of participants and witnesses of the battles. The historical authenticity of literary texts is confirmed by the materials of scientific research. The paper emphasizes the importance of the cultural mission of writers, artists, theatre workers, masters of singing and dancing art who accompanied the troops of the First and the Second Far Eastern Fronts and also introduced Soviet art to the inhabitants of the liberated territories.
Keywords: World War II, surrender of Japan, Soviet cultural workers, Far Eastern campaign of 1945 in art and literature.
A.V. Simonenok. “Remember — One Cannot — Forget”: World War II in the National Memory of the Thai People
Anna Simonenok, Institute of History, Archaeology and Ethnology of the Peoples of the Far East, FEB RAS, Vladivostok, Russia. E-mail: email@example.com.
World War II played a decisive role in the fate of the peoples of Southeast Asia and radically changed the pre-war order that existed in the region. It destroyed the colonial system and created the conditions for the formation of new independent states on the map of Southeast Asia. Meanwhile, there is no unity among the Southeast Asian states in understanding the importance of the war for national and regional history, significant differences are noted towards the memory of World War II. The paper describes the specific features of the perception of the war by the inhabitants of Thailand. It analyzes the nature and the degree of presence of memories of World War II in various areas of the social and cultural life of the Thais: education, scientific literature and fiction, state ideology. The paper reveals various peculiarities of war memorials in Thailand and the attitude of the Thai people towards them as well as the specifics of the celebration of the memorable dates of World War II that exist in the national Thai calendar. Based on the study, the author concludes that Thailand is characterized by a lack of public interest and government attention in preserving the memory of World War II. The analysis of the main causes of Thai national amnesia suggests that it is based not only on the “special” status of Thailand which participated in the war on the “Axis” side. Domestic political circumstances play a major role in a deep conflict that unfolded during the war and post-war period between the institutions of power that dominate in Thailand today (the army and the monarchy) and the opposition democratic movement.
Keywords: World War II, Southeast Asia, Thailand, memory of war, ideology, historical memory.
S.K. Pestsov. Modern China: An Assembly Model or a Puzzle of Various Contradictions