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ECONOMIC CHALLENGES IN MODERN JAPAN

Bazhenova Zh.M., Naumova I.Yu. Preface
Elena Goriacheva, Institute of History, Archaeology and Ethnology of the Peoples of the Far East, FEB RAS, Vladivostok, Russia. E-mail: solo888@yandex.ru.
The article presents analysis of the new economic program named New Capitalism by the Prime Minister of Japan and his Cabinet. The program was announced in 2021 and has been implemented since 2022. The critical points that determine the subsequent change of cabinets of ministers are highlighted, the correlation between the results of the implementation of the Prime Ministers economic policy and the approval of the population of his actions is demonstrated using the comparative analysis of national support reflected in opinion polls data for the ruling cabinets of S. Abe, Y. Suga, F. Kishida, which replaced each other in 20192022. The article gives an overview of the economic program New Capitalism, initiated in Japan at the present by F. Kishida. The summary of the program is based on the content analysis of the text, identifies the key problems of the current political and economic situation in Japan as well as the ways proposed by the state government to solve these issues. Therefore, an expert evaluation of preliminary results of the implementation of the initial stage of the New Capitalism program is given, taking into account the most important geopolitical decisions taken in 2022 by the Cabinet of F. Kishida, i. e. state defense budget exponential growth, the declaration of unprecedented measures to support economically vulnerable groups of the population, aimed at solving urgent socio-demographic problems of Japan (which are aging and low level of reproduction of the population). It is concluded that representatives of both liberal and conservative circles in Japan are negative about the new economic plan of F. Kishida, referring to its main disadvantages as the lack of specificity and vagueness of general formulations, as well as utopian financing schemes for the implementation of project activities, taking into account the modern geopolitical reality of Japan.
Keywords: Japan, economy, Fumio Kishida, Cabinet of Ministers of Japan, New Capitalism, economic situation, economic development plan.
Anna Mostovaia, Institute of History, Archaeology and Ethnology of the Peoples of the Far East, FEB RAS, Vladivostok, Russia. E-mail: kartashema@mail.ru.
The paper analyzes the main effects of the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic and the Ukrainian crisis on the Japanese economy. The pandemic with its main blow in summer 2022 and the situation in the Ukraine have aggravated the complex chronic social and economic issues (population decline, employment, labor market) and added the new ones (national currency depreciation, inflation, reduction of income, etc.). Despite the active participation in anti-Russian sanctions, Japan was subjected to their negative impacts less than European countries. Due to the consistent policy on the resource supply security over the decades, the Japanese authorities managed to mitigate the negative impacts of the energy and food crises in 2022. Under the current conditions of geopolitical instability, the Japanese government is paying more attention to the national security issues including the economic security trying to take its place in the new world order. The involvement in resolving the global issues is receding into the background. Instead, Japan is focusing on its own interests: the adaptation to the new system of world economic relations, increasing its role in Asian countries and reconstructing the value-added chains based on common values excluding Russia and China.
Keywords: Japanese economy, COVID-19 pandemic, Ukrainian crisis, energy crisis, food crisis.
Inna Naumova, Far Eastern Federal University, Vladivostok, Russia. E-mail: naumova.iyu@dvfu.ru.
The paper analyses the activities of the second part of the Five-Year Startup Development Plan published by the Japanese government at the end of 2022. Business communities, experts and government officials are aware of the weak position of modern Japan in the international comparison of entrepreneurial activity and the competitiveness of the national economy as a whole. The paper considers the structure of specific initiatives of the Japanese government in the financial and organizational direction of the Japanese start-up development plan for the next five years. The brightest parameters of the future boom of startups are the plans to increase the total number of startups, the amount of venture capital financing and the number of unicorn companies by 10 times. The paper evaluates the existing problems and reveals the essence of the expected effect after the implementation of the planned measures. The current achievements and planned results of the activities of some institutions of state support for start-ups (for example, the Japan Innovative Investment Corporation (JIC); Small Business Innovation Research System (SBIR), etc.) are examined in detail. Thus, the investment and organizational functions of public-private funds and government organizations as supporting institutions of the startup ecosystem in Japan are subject to improvement. The paper analyzes the ways to reform the regimes and procedures regulating the financial interaction of startup management with investors, stock market structures, their own employees and the state in order to ensure the comfort of the startup ecosystem and maintain a balance of interests of all its participants.
Keywords: Japan, economy, entrepreneurial ecosystem, start-ups, investments, financing of innovative development.
Natalya Vorobeva, Far Eastern Federal University, Vladivostok, Russia. E-mail: vorobeva.na@dvfu.ru.
Olga Sumarokova, Branch of the ANO Japan Development Center of Trade and Economic Relations, Vladivostok, Russia. E-mail: o.sumarokova@jc.org.ru.
Angelina Palenko, Far Eastern Federal University, Vladivostok, Russia. E-mail: palenko.aa@dvfu.ru.
The paper presents the results of the study of practical experience in the implementation of public-private partnership (PPP) in Japan. It gives a brief overview of the modern market for public-private partnership projects among the leading countries. The features of the Japanese model of public-private partnership are highlighted. It was determined that the concept of public-private partnership in Japan developed through a phased historical transformation. The Private Financial Initiative Act serves as a legislative foundation of the public-private partnership regulating system in Japan. The territorial distribution of projects is very broad: projects are implemented from Hokkaido (north) to Kagoshima (south). The use of specific Japanese tools in the implementation of PPP projects has been revealed: the market testing tool a system of competitive tenders, the participants of which are both public enterprise bodies and private business (the state does not just resort to the private sector but competes with it); the system of authorized managers (shitei kanrisha) involvement of private business in the management of infrastructure institutions. From 1999 to 2020, 875 private finance initiative projects were implemented in Japan. This study examines a number of PPP projects implemented in Japan as a case study. It is concluded that public-private partnership for Japan is a qualitatively new approach to renovation of aging infrastructure facilities, which can solve a wide range of financial and technical problems.
Keywords: Japan, public-private partnership, private financial initiative, infrastructure, private sector, regional level, government.
Angelina Palenko, Far Eastern Federal University, Vladivostok, Russia. E-mail: palenko.aa@dvfu.ru.
The paper presents the results of the study of Japanese corporate culture in the post-COVID society and gives a brief overview of the corporate culture research. The paper shows the main features inherent in the traditional corporate culture of Japan. Special attention is given to the description of non-equivalent vocabulary, which conveys specific concepts and national realities in the field of Japanese corporate culture. It was determined that Japanese corporate culture is based on traditional socio-cultural values among which the focus on harmony and consensus plays an important role. Being in the same physical space of the workplace creates tacit knowledge, which implicit transfer within the team unites its members into a special group ensuring the absence of conflict in their communication. This is why personal contacts are so important. During the coronavirus pandemic the Japanese government encouraged companies to establish remote work to reduce the risk of infection. Such measures had a dual impact on corporate culture. On the one hand, as the results of sociological surveys show, the opportunity to work from home has allowed many employees to spend more time with their families and has improved the work-life balance. On the other hand, the transition to online communication, even with the formal preservation of available channels of communication, has significantly hampered the implicit exchange of information, which has led to increased feelings of isolation and dissatisfaction among employees. In addition, the studies have revealed a decrease in labor productivity. In the new realities of the post-COVID society, Japanese corporate culture is exposed to various factors. Some of them are destructive and jeopardize the form in which it has existed so far. Many companies see an alternative in a hybrid work style that combines traditional and new forms of employees organization.
Keywords: Japan, corporate culture, remote work, transformation.

WORLD SCIENCE TRENDS

Aleksandra Labyuk,Institute of History, Archaeology and Ethnology of the Peoples of the Far East, FEB RAS, Vladivostok, Russia. E-mail: labyuk@ihaefe.ru.
Basing on the archival documents of the Far Eastern Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, the paper is the first to introduce the correlation between political goals for the development of cross-border cooperation of the Russian Far East and Northeast China (fixed in program documents) and scientific activities of the Institutes of the Far Eastern Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences. Three institutes that conduct humanitarian, social and natural science research are chosen as examples: the Economic Research Institute of the Far Eastern Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, the Institute of History, Archaeology and Ethnology of the Peoples of the Far East of the Far Eastern Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences and the Pacific Geographical Institute of the Far Eastern Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences. The close geographical position to China, a long period of international contacts and a large team of experts such as economists, political scientists, orientalists and geographers make these institutes the flagships in the field of study of international cooperation and integration of the Russian Far East with the countries of Northeast Asia and the Asia-Pacific region. Between 2007 and 2012, the scientists examined practical objectives, searched for solutions and ways to overcome acute issues. These results were reflected in substantial collective monographs, papers published in the leading Russian and international scientific journals, reports at international venues around the world. Special attention is given to the operational analytics of the institutes for public authorities. It is concluded that the response of science to the current international and regional situation is the basis for the formation of a competent political and economic strategy for Pacific Russia.
Keywords: cross-border cooperation, international scientific relations, Russian Far East, Northeast China, Far-Eastern Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences.
Sergei Ivanov, Institute of History, Archaeology and Ethnology of the Peoples of the Far East, FEB RAS, Vladivostok, Russia. E-mail: isaras9@outlook.com.
This paper examines the dynamics of the humanities and social sciences in the PRC since the early 1980s. Relying on Gramscis concept of hegemony, the author examines this sphere as a professional community connected both with the global intellectual space dominated by Western values and the national political space based on Communist ideology. This paper shows how China first embraced Western hegemony in global science, seeking through its values to create a competitive environment for catch-up development, but in recent years has pursued an alternative path to strengthen official ideology and its external influence. The PRC authorities have increased funding and other support for the social disciplines and the humanities but also set the bar high for promoting the Chinese worldview and Chinese approaches to social relations in the international community. However, the main mechanisms for implementing this strategy creating think tanks with Chinese characteristics, building special relations with global sinology, mobilising creative potential, and popularising research externally cannot be characterised as successful yet. They introduce China to the world and involve foreign colleagues under Chinese influence, but they do not create the main thing a counter-discourse capable of describing social relations outside the framework of Western liberal values. The paper also shows that the strategy of Sinicization of social sciences and the humanities faces structural contradictions in Chinese scientific community, which have been formed due to accelerated integration into global science.
Keywords: China, social sciences, humanities, hegemony, liberal values, communist ideology.
Elena Goriacheva, Institute of History, Archaeology and Ethnology of the Peoples of the Far East, FEB RAS, Vladivostok, Russia. E-mail: solo888@yandex.ru.
Anna Mostovaia, Institute of History, Archaeology and Ethnology of the Peoples of the Far East, FEB RAS, Vladivostok, Russia. E-mail: kartashema@mail.ru.
Based on the analysis of the main national science development strategies of Japan, the article consistently examines the evolution of Japans science policy from 1995 to 2021. In addition, a brief overview of government and scientific organizations involved in the development of science development plans in Japan is given by authors, as well as the analysis of the content of Basic Plans for Science, Technology and Innovation adopted and implemented during the study period. The authors refer to the main indicators of science development in Japan, including dynamics of R&D expenditure in Japan (20112019), the number of researchers and publications. The article analyzes the content of the latest The Sixth Basic Plan for Science, Technology and Innovation (20212025), identifies and analyzes three main groups of directions for the development of science in Japan. Furthermore, the authors consider global changes caused by a combination of external and internal factors affecting Japan, primarily the factor of the PRC in terms of sharply increased R&D funding in 19952020 and, accordingly, the growth of scientific achievements. In addition, the authors analyze the plans for the transformation of scientific activity in Japan under the influence of the COVID-19 pandemic in two ways: direct transformation of R&D RX (research transformation) and the digital transformation of R&D DX (digital transformation).
Keywords: Japan, science, Japans science policy, science development strategy.
Natalia Sudakova, Georgy Arbatov Institute for U.S. and Canada Studies, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russia. E-mail: kamanata@mail.ru.
The paper analyzes the current state and trends in the development of science and technology in the United States during the first decades of the 21st century. Competitive positions and prospects for maintaining U.S. leadership in the field of science and technology were identified. It was revealed that science and innovation activity continue to shift from the USA and Europe to the east. The United States maintains a leading position on many science and engineering indicators. In 2019, they reached their historical maximum spending on science 3% of GDP. At the same time, China is showing the highest rate of growth in R&D spending among the worlds major economies. Chinas share in highly cited articles has increased sharply over the past decade, the countrys position in international patent activities and in knowledge-based and high-tech production has significantly strengthened. Some internal issues have accumulated in the United States including reduced federal support for students in science and engineering, insufficient availability of quality mathematics and science education for pre-university students and higher education in STEM fields, the underrepresentation of women and some minority groups in the STEM workforce relative to their share of the total population. The competition for the preservation of U.S. leadership in science and technology was one of the main factors in the growth of federal R&D funding in recent years, despite severe budget restrictions. Under the Biden administration U.S. science and technology policy has become more traditional for American practice. It is aimed primarily at solving important social problems within the country. Among J. Bidens industry priorities are advanced manufacturing programs, climate research, quantum and advanced communication technologies, energy and biotechnology, and health research projects.
Keywords: USA, China, R&D, indicators of science and technology development, R&D intensity, science and technology policy priorities, federal R&D funding.

ARCHAEOLOGY

Elena Sidorenko, Institute of History, Archaeology and Ethnology of the Peoples of the Far East, FEB RAS, Vladivostok, Russia. E-mail: sidoriha3@yandex.ru.
Irina Belova, Institute of History, Archaeology and Ethnology of the Peoples of the Far East, FEB RAS, Vladivostok, Russia. E-mail: irceo@mail.ru.
Natalia Dorofeeva, Institute of History, Archaeology and Ethnology of the Peoples of the Far East, FEB RAS, Vladivostok, Russia. E-mail: dnaal@list.ru.
Nikolay Kluyev, Institute of History, Archaeology and Ethnology of the Peoples of the Far East, FEB RAS, Vladivostok, Russia. E-mail: kluyev2006@yandex.ru.
The paper analyzes the archaeological materials of the upper cultural horizon of the Vodopadnoe-7 site in South Primorye. The described complex is associated with the filling of the foundation pit of the dwelling investigated in 2017. It is determined that the dwelling existed for a long time and was left by the inhabitants in the calm environment. The paper gives a detailed description of ceramic dishes as well as tools found in the dwelling and on the site in front of it. The ceramic complex includes at least 93 vessels of various preservation. Five main types of dishes are distinguished represented both by containers of simple shapes and with a dedicated neck. The ceramic complex of the site is characterized by slightly profiled, vertically elongated vessels, mostly unornamented. The tool set is represented by a few items and their fragments made of stone and clay. The authors note the originality of the ceramic material of the Vodopadnoye-7 site expressed both in technological methods and in the morphological features of the vessels. On the one hand, the ceramics of the Vodopadnoe-7 site demonstrates the continuity of the Late Neolithic traditions, such as elongated shapes of vessels and leaf imprints on the bottom of some items. On the other hand, there are indications of the adoption of new traditions, such as changes in the morphology of vessels (imitating amphora-shaped containers) and the appearance of some decorative elements. The late complex of the Vodopadnoye-7 site is dated to the Early Paleometallic Age. The cultural environment that influenced its formation is indicated (Chernyatinskaya, Tetyukhinskaya and Akhobinskaya groups of sites).
Keywords: Primorye, Paleometal Epoch, Vodopadnoe-7 site, ceramic complex, pottery tradition.

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