L.I. Gallyamova. Presenting the column
Vasilij Makarenko, Institute of History, Archaeology and Ethnography of the Peoples of the Far East, FEB RAS, Vladivostok, Russia. E-mail: vasgen@bk.ru.
Within the scope of summarizing opinions and assessments of the researchers of the Russian academic organization (philosophers, historians, sociologists, economists, political scientists, teachers in higher education), the results and the social consequences of market reforms 19922016 in the higher education system are analyzed. There are evaluations about Russias accession to the Bologna Process (2003), the introduction of the Unified State Examination (USE), paid higher education, stress, turnover of the teaching staff, reforms in higher education in Russia and in the Far East Federal District. Following published and archival sources, in 19902000, the constant decline of the level and of the quality of specialists is stated in the institutions of higher education of the Russian Federation and in the Far East because of the insufficient state funding and the outflow of a significant number of highly qualified teaching staff doctors of sciences and candidates of sciences in other areas of employment and abroad. It is concluded that the state and regional system of higher education doesnt entirely fulfill its mission in training of specialists and creation of intellectual potential of the Russian Federation. Under the conditions of a long-term social and economic system crisis, Russian society didnt manage to influence effectively the public policy in higher education, to overcome the negative social consequences of the reforms, which were primarily carried out by the Ministry of Education and Science. In new political, social, economic, and cultural conditions, permanent market reforms in the institutions of higher education in 19922016, which turned out to be ambiguous, the results and socio-economic effects led to the breakdown of the Soviet education system, its transformation on the whole, the formation of new models of training of specialists in accordance with Western standards.

Keywords: Russia, Far East, higher education, reforms, results, social consequences.
Larisa Garusov, Institute of History, Archaeology and Ethnography of the Peoples of the Far East, FEB RAS, Vladivostok, Russia. E-mail: lgarusova@mail.ru.
The process of globalization in the Asia Pacific region demands new professional skills and competencies. Nowadays, the solution of this task is connected with internationalization of education where academic mobility becomes a major feature. The most common forms of academic mobility in Russia and all over the world are exchange programs: education of students, graduate students, and lecturers abroad, participation in joint scientific projects with foreign universities and research centers. There are some specific features in understanding the process of internationalization of education in different countries, but basic forms and directions of international cooperation in different countries are similar and are determined by the geographical location.

More than fifty universities function and carry out international contacts successfully in the Russian Far East today. Two universities Far Eastern Federal University (Vladivostok) and North-Eastern Federal University (Yakutsk) were included in the top 100 Russian universities in the Far East in 2016. The universities of Pacific Russia are aimed at the development of cooperation with the countries of the Asia-Pacific Region, first of all, with China. They have to compete for Chinese educational market with the universities of the USA, Australia, and Europe. The internationalization of higher education in Pacific Russia will be realized not only by federal universities (FESU, NEFU) but also by numerous regional universities which represent traditional Russian universities with undergraduate and graduate programs. One of the typical regional universities of the Russian Far East is Vladivostok State University of Economics and Service (VSUES), successfully cooperating with more than 20 universities of the countries of the Asia-Pacific region, including China, the Republic of Korea, Japan, the USA, Vietnam, Laos, etc.

Keywords: Pacific Russia, APR, International Cooperation, Regional University, Internationalization of the Education, Academic Mobility, research and regional universities, China, VSUES.
Ljudmila Galljamova, Institute of History, Archaeology and Ethnography of the Peoples of the Far East, FEB RAS, Vladivostok, Russia. E-mail: ludagal@mail.ru.
The article studies the features of the integration of academic science and the system of higher education of Pacific Russia at the present stage. It is emphasized that at the beginning of the 21st century, the science becomes the most important productive force, and the economic, financial, military, and political power of the state depends on the level of its development and on the share of high technology products in the total production volume. This issue is completely relevant to the Russian Far East, as the integrated strategy of the development of the region involves the goal to create an industrialized area on the basis of modernization of economy, adoption of recent scientific developments, as well as achievement of the optimum level of social infrastructure in order to attract and to retain population. The article points out that the implementation of the strategic objectives is not possible without a significant number of highly qualified specialists with higher education. Therefore, the cooperation of the institutes of the Academy of Sciences and the system of higher education of the Far Eastern region is of great importance. The author analyzes the historical experience of the cooperation between the institutions of higher education and academic institutes, gained by the beginning of the 21st century, which characterizes various forms and methods of cooperation. It is noted that nowadays, all main areas of engineering, natural sciences, and humanities are presented, and there is a fairly well-developed system of higher education in the region. A creation of the Far Eastern Federal University was a particular stage in the integration of higher education and academic science. The author believes that the establishment of the Far Eastern Federal University will enhance further interaction of personnel, scientific, and material resources of the university and the Far Eastern Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, based on widespread use of scientific potential of the Far Eastern Branch including the most modern research methods. It is concluded that the integrated intellectual as well as scientific and technical potential of Pacific Russia can and must be provide successful economic growth and the solution of strategic objectives of the region.
Keywords: Pacific Russia, Far East, academic science, higher education, integration, development strategy, intellectual potential.
Roman Avilov, Institute of History, Archaeology and Ethnography of the Peoples of the Far East, FEB RAS, Vladivostok. E-mail: avilov-1987@mail.ru.
Using the sources from the State Archive of the Russian Federation (GARF) and the State Archive of the Khabarovsk Region (GAKHK), this article examines the role of the educational potential of the population in the safety of the Russian Far East before the First World War. Between the Russo-Japanese War of 19041905 and the First World War of 19141918, a whole range of military reforms was realized in the Russian Empire in order to enhance defense capacity. However, in the age of mass armies, that was not enough. Modern weapon handling and the war against the well-defined enemy demanded an appropriated level from a Russian soldier as well. Therefore, during the Russo-Japanese War, some militaries initiated the study of the Japanese primary education for the purpose of raising a general cultural and literacy level of soldiers and implementing this system in Russia.

Unfortunately, the discussion of this questions and the detailed project development of the educational reform took longer than planned. The discussion in the government began in 1910, the full introduction of the universal primary education in the Empire was planned to be finished in 1920. However, the First World War, which began in 1914, put an end to the Russian Empire which didnt manage to realize the important educational reform in time.

Keywords: Russian army, education, military reforms, Priamur military district, Russo-Japanese War 19041905, World War I.
Lidiya Fetisova, Institute of History, Archaeology and Ethnography of the Peoples of the Far East, FEB RAS, Vladivostok, Russia. E-mail: lefet@yandex.ru.
The article deals with modern trends in historical science connected with a change of attitude to cultural assets, which are defined as a special element of the historical process. The author notices that this new view of culture involves new approaches to the textbooks and tutorials about the history of separate territories. The development of appropriate educational programs and educational material play a special role in transmission of necessary information and they are one of the most effective ways for attracting attention of young generation to cultural heritage of ancestors. A special focus is puton the problems of regional culture, mainly folklore culture, which is not always included in the educational programs although the folk and ethnographic complex is a basic part of any nations culture. The article analyzes textbooks with chapters devoted to peculiarities of the creation of the folklore culture in the Russian Far East. Oral folk traditions of Eastern-Slavic immigrants (Russians, Ukrainians, Belarusians composing the ethnic core of the Russian Empire) are estimated from the position of their productivity and adaptive importance. From this perspective, three publications are examined which were organized by the Institute of History, Archaeology and Ethnography of the Peoples of the Far East, FEB RAS, issued from 1998 to 2015 and intended for pupils of comprehensive secondary schools, specialized secondary institutions and for students of institutions of higher education. The author emphasizes that educational literature, based on multi-year research of the Far-Eastern scientists, doesnt only introduce their works into the educational system, but also fulfils an important educational function: it gives an opportunity to be convinced of historical and cultural importance of the region which is an integral part of Russia.
Keywords: historical science, cultural heritage, traditional folklore, Russian Far East, regional textbooks.
Tatyana Krayushkina, Institute of History, Archaeology and Ethnography of the Peoples of the Far East, FEB RAS, Vladivostok, Russia. E-mail: kvtbp@yandex.ru.
The article deals with traditional notions of East Slavic ethnic groups about education and erudition of men and women in interpersonal relationships as an element of intellectual potential of the region. The study is based on East Slavic regional folk fairy tales of Siberia and the Far East over the last hundred years (from the last third of the 19th century until the last third of the 20th century). The paper studies the components of education and erudition, inherent in the peoples perception.

Parents teach biological and adoptive sons consistently in fairy tales. Only the children with high social status go to school, mainly merchant sons. The fairy tales tell only about teaching boys at school; education of girls is rarely mentioned. Only male characters can understand the benefit of studies. The elementary representation about education and erudition of men and women typical for peasantry is presented in the fairy tales. The analysed regional texts show clearly the following traditional perception of East Slavic ethnic groups: reading skills are more important for men then writing; writing is more significant for women. The skills of reading and writing help men and women to inform others and to get information about past, present or future events.

Keywords: intellectual potential, interpersonal relations, man, woman, East Slavic folk fairy tales, regional folklore, education, erudition, traditional ideas.

Fyodor Popov, Kutafin Moscow State Law University, Moscow, Russia. E-mail: popovf1992@mail.ru.
The fall of the A. Kolchaks regime in 1920 had a negative impact on the political and legal status of the Russian population in China. On September 23, 1920, the Chinese government eliminated the Russian embassy, exercising jurisdiction over Russian citizens on Chinese territory. The closure of the embassy marked the beginning of massive changes in the legal life of the Russian colony.

The research studies the reaction of the Russian community in Manchuria to Chinas effort to unify the judicial system by Chinese standards. The article tells about such episode of the Russian-Chinese relations as the trip of the Russian delegation to Beijing for negotiations about adjustments to the legal status of the Russian population. Basing on emigrant press, the author examines the behavior of some groups of the Russian society in China, whose response to the news about the sinicization of the court was ambiguous.

The article focuses on the normative legal acts of the Chinese government concerning the organisation of judicial institutions in Manchuria and participation in court proceedings of foreign (including Russian) lawyers. Many statutory provisions of Chinese law conflicted with the Russian legal tradition and, therefore, were perceived negatively by Russians. The steps taken by the embassy in order to protect the interests of Russian citizens are described using the published correspondence of Russian diplomats. The conflict between the Russian colony and the Chinese administration is illustrated with specific examples from the practice of law of the analysed period.

The author comesto the conclusion that the Chinese authorities had the purposeful actions to eliminate the Russian judicial system. Serious differences between Russian and Chinese legal styles prevented harmonization of law in Manchuria. China, seeking to unify the legal environment and to control ethnic minorities, contributed to the growth of anti-Chinese sentiment in Russian environment.

Keywords: Russian extraterritoriality in China, judicial system of Manchuria, Sino-Russian relations, impact of the Russian Civil war on the legal status of Russians in China, closure of the Russian consular courts in China, social and political climate of Russian colony in China.
Inessa Kapran, Maritime State University named after admiral G.I. Nevelskoy, Vladivostok, Russia. E-mail: kapran@mail.ru.
This paper examines the living conditions of the Zemskaya Rat and the Siberian flotilla after their evacuation from Vladivostok in 1922. On the basis of the analysis of documentary information from domestic and foreign archives, the author investigates organizational activity of the command to provide the living conditions of the military units and civilians. New information from the documents of the Museum of Russian culture in San Francisco was found due to general scientific research techniques as well as the historical and typological method. The living conditions of people who turned out to be in the situation of refugees on the territory of China and Korea are reconstructed. The notionan everyday lifeis defined and includes all necessary conditions for a human life: food, clothes, accommodation, and medical treatment. According to the author, the creation of the Office for refugees headed by Lieutenant General M.K. Diterikhs, securing the living conditions of the refugees in China and Korea was of great importance. A special focus is the study of the activity of chief representative of the refugees in Genzan (Korea), Major General D.A. Lebedev and Commander of the Far Eastern Cossack group, Lieutenant General F.L. Glebov. The author concludes that these people used maximum opportunities for providing living conditions, organization of inner order, maintenance of discipline among staff and civilians.
Keywords: refugees, outcome, Russian emigration, daily life, living conditions.
Vitalii Boldyrev, Institute of History, Archeology and Ethnography of Peoples of Far East, FEB RAS, Vladivostok, Russia. E-mail: boldyrev89@list.ru.
Valerii Mishin, Institute of History, Archeology and Ethnography of Peoples of Far East, FEB RAS, Vladivostok, Russia. E-mail: uran_mishin@mail.ru.
The probability of North Koreas liberalization under the influence of the U.S. policy is forecasted in the paper. Its revealed that the current U.S. government tries to reach the goal using the methods of soft and smart power. Authors research the theoretical heritage of neoconservatism as well as the U.S. experience of liberalization of the left-wing regimes in the 1980s in order to determine the conditions favourable to liberal tendencies and successful realization of the American policy. The analysis allows distinguishing the conditions necessary for successful liberal transit. They favoured the transition to market economy and to the democratic system; the absence of some of them doomed the U.S. policy to failure. Consequently, the U.S. policy is an additional factor while readiness of societies and regimes is fully determined by endogenous conditions.
The analysis of current political, social, and economic trends in the DPRK was conducted in terms of intermediate conclusion. It showed that the conditions favourable to liberalization are absent in North Korea. Therefore, the U.S. policy was assessed as hardly realizable, intended for a long term. The measures undertaken by Washington nowadays are characterized as preparation for liberalization realized similarly in the countries of Eastern Europe in the 1980s.

Keywords: U.S., DPRK, liberalization, left-wing regime, soft power, smart power.

Viktor Krivonogov, Institute of Humanities, Siberian Federal University, Krasnoyarsk, Russia. E-mail: victor950@yandex.ru.
In July 2016, the expedition was carried out to study modern ethnic processes of the indigenous people of Guam the Chamorro. The Chamorro people wereunderthe influence of the colonial states for a long time: by Spain in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, by the US from the beginning of the twentieth century. Over the past fifty years, the ethnic composition of the population of the island became more complex; in addition to Americans, thelarge groups of people appeared from the Philippines and Micronesia, Asian people Japanese, Chinese,Koreans, and others. As a result, the proportion of indigenous people became less by fifty percent. It activated ethnic processes which appear vividly in the language as well as in the growth of mixed marriages.

During the expedition, a survey of the Chamorro people was carried out with the sampling of 0.5%; more than 300 people were interviewed. Five communities of various national compositions were chosen which corresponded to the type of settlement of the Chamorro people on the island. The high-speed process of language assimilation is revealed: native inhabitants speak English much. There are almost no children who can speak their mother tongue. A mixed nature of the settlement led to intensification of contacts of the Chamorro people with foreign population in??marriage;nowadays, every fourth family is mixed. There are all main ethnic groups of the island among the spouses of the Chamorro people: mostly the Filipinos, also Americans, Koreans, Chinese, people of Micronesia (Chuuk, Tuvalu), etc. The growing number of such marriages can soon lead to a complete breakthrough of endogamy. Children from mixed families identify themselves mostly as the Chamorro. Mixing marriages lead to a significant change of the anthropological type of the Chamorro. Miscegenation increases: almost all children become mestizo. But despite active miscegenation and language assimilation, the Chamorro people preserve their number and ethnic identity.

Keywords: Guamanians, Chamorro, ethnic processes, mixed marriages, miscegenation, linguistic assimilation, bilingualism, ethnic identity.
Vladimir Podmaskin, Institute of History, Archaeology and Ethnography of the Peoples of the Far East, FEB RAS, Vladivostok, Russia. E-mail: podmaskin@yandex.ru.
As a result of field ethnographic expeditions (1993, 1995, 2002) and examination of literature sources, it is revealed that the Taz people preserved peoples knowledge about nature, man and society, which is an interesting and important topic for understanding the ethnogenesis and ethnic history of indigenous peoples of Primorye. Taz people were interested in their origins, their relationship with other population groups. It turned out that they knew thoroughly the fishing territories. They knew in detail the topography and landscape of the Ussuri taiga, river systems, local flora and fauna, climatic and meteorological conditions of the seasons of the year. The orientation was conducted by the mountain landscape, the direction of the wind, the flow of the rivers, the sun (Vitu), the moon (Velya), and the stars (Singsya). The natural landmarks became the names of geographic features. The names reflected the natural conditions of Primorye, the features of activities and everyday life, the world view. The Taz people mastered fishing territory by hunting, fishing and gathering, traced the migration of animals, the seasonal cycle of fish spawning, observed the way of life and habits of animals. They knew and appreciated the excellent qualities of wood and bark as a building material. They learnt to get drugs, poisons, oils, dyes and tannins from plants. Ethnobotanical knowledge, according to abilities and skills, had ancient traditions and was well placed in the culture. The ethnic group developed traditional oral medicine, which involved not only the methods of treatment of health problems but also a whole system of preventive measures for health protection.
Keywords: Taz people, ethnogony, toponymy, spatial orientation, national metrology, calendar, cosmography, knowledge about fauna and flora, folk medicine.
Roman Gvozdev, Institute of History, Archaeology and Ethnography of the Peoples of the Far East, FEB RAS, Vladivostok, Russia. E-mail: groma@inbox.ru.
The author attempts to trace the features of landscape adaptation of the ethnos through the example of traditional physical education of the Aleuts. The data for study is testimonial letters of Russian state officials, churchmen, and military men of the Aleutian Islands. The relative isolation of the island culture of the Aleuts allowed them to develop their own skills of survival in the environment. However, there are certain similarities with traditional physical culture of the neighboring peoples: the Inuit, the Tlingit, the Chukchi. The common features are determined by active contacts between people (war and trade) and by a similar level of socio-economic development and living environment. The main method of education among the Aleuts (as well as in many other traditional cultures) was various games. Modeling of the real world while playing in the absence of writing was the most efficient way of getting skills which were essential for survival in the complex environment. The education of not only a hunter but at the same time a warrior was also very important under conditions of permanent internal conflicts between different isolated groups of the Aleuts and confrontation with neighboring peoples. In this case, the adaptation is not only the adjustment to the landscape for getting food but also the survival as confrontation to the external threat. Traditional physical culture of the Aleuts had a very rational character. From an early age and throughout all life, it helped to develop and improve the skills necessary for survival in the environment: conduct of sea fishing, hunting, farming, war.
Keywords: Aleuts, traditional physical culture, education, folk games, landscape adaptation of the ethnic group.

S.M. Dudarenok, O.D. Iskhakova, T.A. Krupa, O.P. Fedirko. Second international scientific conference Vladivostok a point of return: the past and the future of Russian emigration

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