PERESTROIKA IN USSR: AFTER 30 YEARS
Vadim Turaev, Institute of History, Archaeology and Ethnography of the Peoples of the Far East FEB RAS, Vladivostok, Russia. E-mail: email@example.com
The paper deals with the crisis of Soviet civic identity resulting in the fall of USSR. The crisis’ reasons, both the ones that had been maturing long before the country’s collapse and the ones induced by perestroika processes, are analyzed. Social and demographic changes occurring in the country by late 1970’s, social age conflict, particularly in the nomenklatura environment, mistakes of the class policy of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union not reflecting deep social changes in society, world outlook polarization of society, the youth rejecting the ideological values of the older generation, loss of respect to political leaders, which could but affect the attitude to the country: these are some of the factors favoring the development of critical phenomena in civic identity. The Soviet identity destruction process during perestroika is shown as a purposeful campaign on taking down the Soviet people and state. The objective to insinuate the propriety of the existing regime was set; the citizens’ loyalty began to be seen as adherence to conservatism. The glasnost policy as an important instrument of this campaign conditioned the loss of faith into the historical mission of the Soviet Union and disappointment in the ideals that had not been called into questioned before. Loss of trust into the communist system forming the statesmanship basis forced many citizens, regardless of their social status, national or religious identity, to search for new world outlook reference points and, as a result, accelerated the fall of the Soviet Union.
Key words: Soviet identity crisis, social age conflict, world outlook polarization of society, glasnost policy, Soviet people takedown.
A.S. Vashchuk. What do we know about reasons and background of perestroika? (Concepts and discussions of 1989—2015)
Angelina Vashchuk, Institute of History, Archaeology and Ethnography of the Peoples of the Far East FEB RAS, Vladivostok, Russia. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
The paper analyzes the main characteristics of the Russian historiographical heritage in understanding the most important issues of national history — the prerequisite and causes of the last Soviet reforms. The selection of the literature was conducted on the principle of separation of the most striking works, representing one or another direction.
The paper analyzes Russian historiographical sources on one of the most important issues of Russian history: background and reasons of the last Soviet reforms. The literature was selected by choosing the most significant works representing a specific current in historiography.
The period between 1989 and 1995 is seen as pre-history of the issue study. The characteristic feature of historiographical situation at the first stage was predomination of economic explanations. It is due to the fact that historians joined the topic’s discussion after release of works by economists and politicians who had participated in developing reform projects and after a huge number of publications. The paper explains the factor of influence of the “communist reformism” on interpretation of perestroika process in the beginning of its historiographical source development. The text includes diverse evaluative judgments about social and economic stand of USSR in late 1970’s and early 1980’s. Special attention is paid to analysis of scientific discussion, if Soviet economy was in late 1970’s and early 1980’s “at the brink of collapse” and what role the conclusions of economical analysts’ group created by Gorbachev for reform substantiation played. The role of political and research career of a specific author in his or her world outlook attitudes is also described. It is emphasized that the discussion on this matter is not finished yet.
Since the second half of the 1990’s, concepts explaining background of perestroika as understood in historical cratology began to be developed intensely. It was found that Russian authors derived a particular reconstruction and personification module, Gorbachev phenomenon, an integral pre-requisite of perestroika, from the British-American tradition. The factor of ideological influence of foreign politicians on forming reformation ideas is desctribed on the example of creative historiographical analysis laboratory in A.V. Ostrovsky’s legacy.
Key words: historiography, Russia, perestroika, L.I. Brezhnev, Y.V. Andropov, M.S. Gorbachev, reforms.
E.N. Chernolutskaia. Did the stagnation even exist? Rethinking the reasons of Soviet perestroika in the West in the 2000’s
Elena Chernolutskaia, Institute of History, Archaeology and Ethnography of the Peoples of the Far East FEB RAS, Vladivostok, Russia. E-mail: email@example.com
The paper analyzes publications of British and American researchers of the 2000’s subjecting the concept of “Brezhnev’s stagnation” introduced to the research and public discourse by M.S. Gorbachev and giving the theoretical substantiation of Soviet perestroika’s reasons to critical rethinking using new approaches and methods. The author focuses her attention to a number of this field of Western historiography regarding the evaluation of USSR’s internal development, L.I. Brezhnev’s political figure, economic development, ideology (including the developed socialism theory), roles of Soviet intellectuals (including dissenters), social processes and traits of everyday life. Authors of the works studied do not deny the presence of stagnation phenomena and tendencies in the late-Soviet system. But they prove that Brezhnev’s epoch was a much more complex, versatile and controversial phenomenon. It differed from other periods of the Soviet history with relative stability, welfare, absence of violence, dynamic and manifold society life distant from Western stereotypical ideas. The researchers come to a conclusion that this epoch requires more detailed analysis than the stagnation paradigm allows and question Gorbachev’s depth of understanding the Soviet system’s stand “inherited” by him from his predecessors, and, therefore, sufficient arguments of reformation policy of the SPCU’s General Secretary.
Key words: stagnation concept in USSR, late socialism, Brezhnev’s epoch, Gorbachev reforms, perestroika, English historiographical sources.
Xu Haiyan, Institute of Political Science, Chinese Academy of Social Sciences, Beijing, China. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Chinese researchers show a great interest in studying the issues of perestroika in the Soviet Union. The paper demonstrates that no agreement of opinion has formed yet in the researchers’ community of PRC on this issue; therefore, contrary and mutually exclusive viewpoints are widespread. Such situation has formed due to an abundant but complex empirical basis, small distance from the historical period studied, differences in viewpoints of researchers and other factors.
The predominant field of research was formed based on fundamental principles of Marxist theory. They were the starting point for studying the reasons, consequences and lessons of perestroika and its influence on other socialist countries. But in recent years, analysis performed by Chinese researchers has grown more independent and humane. Such research uses integrated methods of sociology, political studies and psychology. Attention is being increasingly focused on tracking and in-depth analysis of sources including opinion polls in Russia, memoirs of contemporaries, expert evaluations, archive and statistical materials.
Historiographical sources of comparative research of the Soviet perestroika and Chinese reforms are also analyzed in the paper. Two standpoints can be pointed out here. According to the first one, USSR could have use the experience of Chinese reforms but chose not to do so. The second one denies the possibility of experience transfer explaining this with dissimilarity of social and economic situation in both countries.
Key words: Soviet Union, perestroika, China, reforms, historiography.
I.Yu. Zuenko. The last lesson of the Older Brother: the political reform issue in China and perestroika in USSR
Ivan Zuenko, Far Eastern Federal University; Institute of History, Archaeology and Ethnography of the Peoples of the Far East FEB RAS, Vladivostok, Russia. E-mail: email@example.com
The paper deals with issues of political reform in PRC in the second half of 1980’s and its connection with perestroika in USSR. The author presumes that these two processes could not take course autonomously, without mutual influence. Therefore, when speaking about political development of PRC, the factor of perestroika in USSR as a site for trying out the political system transformation experience and motivation source for a part of Chinese political elite has to be taken into consideration. But the work performed showed that this factor had not to be underestimated. Media messages about events in USSR in 1985—1987 were reserved. In 1987—1989, the attention to perestroika processes intensified; positive evaluations of changes in USSR began to prevail in Chinese media which was, in the author’s opinion, due to covert support of Zhao Ziyang aimed at extension of the political reform. But no evidence was found that political agenda of reforms in PRC was formed under the influence of the Soviet experience. The reforms in China were wound up due to internal reasons but not as a result of drawing any conclusions about the negative experience of CPSS. At the same time, studying the reasons of the collapse of the Communist Party and the country in whole favored the policy adjustment of the Communist Party of China in the following years.
Key words: China, modernization, political reform, USSR, perestroika.
E.V. Buyanov. Development of state authorities in regions of the Russian Federation after perestroika
Evgeny Buyanov, Amur State University, Blagoveshensk, Russia. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
The paper reviews the issues of state authorities development in constituent entities of the Russian Federation after perestroika. The viewpoints on reasons of perestroika of 1985—1991 existing in research environment are presented. The characteristic features of a new political class developing in Russia are given. The process of Soviet party nomenclature transforming into the new Russian elite is studied. The author draws a conclusion that in Russia of the early 1990’s, the new power was forming with continuity both in personality aspect and on the organizational and political level. Some attention is paid to the analysis of human resources in authorities of the Far-Eastern regions in the early 1990’s — early 21st century. It is noted that after perestroika, public officers were recruited according to old rules (corporate principle) which resulted in the officials’ shiftlessness, inert attitude to their duties and unprofessional performance. All vices of the Soviet human resources management system, the meanest of which was corruption, turned out to be transferred into the Russian civil service. Perestroika of 1985—1991 brought the free democratic elections into Russian political life. It became clear that the old methods of authority forming can be combined quite well with new democratic procedures. Altogether, it influenced the functioning of civil institutions in constituent entities of the Russian Federation.
Key words: perestroika, state authorities, elections to state authorities, events of August 19th — 21st, Communist Party of the Soviet Union, nomenklatura, elite, counter-elite, power’s legitimacy, civil service system.
Nikolay Baykov, Far Eastern Institute of Management, Branch of the Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration, Khabarovsk, Russia. E-mail: email@example.com
The paper presents characteristic features of the post-perestroika generation’s social transitions identified as a result of sociological time-lapse study of youth (persons of 17, 24 and 19 years of age) in Khabarovsk Krai from 1997 to 2013. The age factor is crucial for differentiation of social structure, since a specific expectation system is characteristic for each age group. As an objective factor, it allows not only to calculate a person’s age but also to outline the groups symbolizing the beginning, middle and end of its youth age. Upon end of the post-perestroika period which lasted 25—30 years, a generation cycle in a sense, the results of sociological time-lapse study of social transitions performed by “children of perestroika” in the course of their coming into age are of academic and practical interest. Five social transitions have the most lasting effect on the youth’s socialization and professionalization: continuing education, beginning of working practice, acquiring healthy lifestyle skills, making a family, formation and expressing one’s civic stance. The results of sociological research presented in the paper prove that social and professional coming-of-age of “children of perestroika” influences their value systems and motivations which have controversial and sometimes paradoxical nature. In the author’s opinion, the state’s and society’s underestimation of the social transitions characteristic for moving into adulthood created many problems in socialization and professionalization of the persons born in those years, in personal formation, being in demand in the social and economic aspect in the new conditions.
Key words: youth, “children of perestroika”, age status, social transitions, value systems, education, youth, working practice, making a family, healthy lifestyle, civic stance, Khabarovsk Krai, sociological time-lapse study.
O.E. Shishkina. Transformation of the administrative liability institution during perestroika and the first post-Soviet decade
Olga Shishkina, Far Eastern Federal University, Vladivostok, Russia. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
The paper analyzes the transformations the legal administrative liability institution suffered during perestroika and the first post-Soviet decade. The author analyzes the USSR Customs Code of 1964, basic legislation principles of the USSR and the Union’s republics on administrative offences of 1980, Code of Administrative Offences of 1984, Customs Code of the Russian Federation of 1993, Criminal Code of the Russian Federation of 1996, Code of Administrative Offences of the Russian Federation of 2001 and other regulatory acts adopted during the period reviewed. The paper describes the main fields in which the administrative, tort and adjacent legislation was reformed, the reasons and consequences of changes and their influence on the modern development level of administrative liability institution. The following is shown in the paper: transformation of offence objects for which administrative liability shall be imposed (in this aspect, the greater attention is paid at customs field which is of particular concern for the Russian Far East’s territory); change of social role and financial and economic significance of administrative liability of legal persons; the role of legal positions of the Constitutional Court in development of administrative and tort legislation. The author draws a general conclusion that gradually, over the period of more than 20 years lapsing since adoption of the Code of Administrative Offences of RSFSR, the role of administrative liability as a state’s leverage in society control with the purpose of protecting public peace, health, civil rights and liberties and providing for their security significantly changed. Whereas applying administrative liability measures during the Soviet period served mostly for fighting diverse “minor offences” found in course of state authorities fulfilling their functions, today’s role of administrative liability is in many regards exaggerated which has both objective reasons and absence of an integral administrative and tort policy in the state.
Key words: history of administrative liability, administrative and tort legislation, administrative and tort policy.
M.O. Pryazhennikov. Change in labor legislation from the viewpoint of local legal regulations development
Maxim Pryazhennikov, Far Eastern Federal University, Vladivostok, Russia. E-mail: email@example.com
The paper deals with development history of social relationships’ legal regulation of labor Russia from 1985 to 1995 in conditions of the entire national legal system’s transformation. Labor law transformation is contemplated from the viewpoint of local labor legal development institution in its essential aspects: regulatory aspect, subjective aspect (moving from pseudo-dualistic system of local rule-making to pseudo-multipolar one and to the dualistic one used until the present moment), value and ideological aspect (development of de-centralizaion ideology and intensification of private-law basics of labor law). The development of legal regulation of collective agreement adoption matters and other local regulatory acts in conditions of change of labor regulation management system, economic system and labor market. The tendencies of collective agreement development and transformation of approaches to its contents and functional purpose in the gear of local legal regulation (from the act formalizing the labor law standards, obligations in labor and economic activity, to the source of labor law exclusively) are identified. The change of legal nature and functional purpose of basic legalized types of other regulatory acts (internal rules of labor conduct, provisions on labor payment) is described. The status of local regulatory acts containing technical and legal norms in the local legal regulation system is defined.
Key words: local regulatory acts, collective agreements, legal regulation, rebuilding, labor law.
RUSSIA’S PASIFIC: HISTORY AND CONTEMPORARY PERIOD
I.V. Shmonin, D.I. Shmonin. Historical aspects of providing security of Russia’s Far-Eastern border in the early 20th century
Igor Shmonin, Institute of History, Archaeology and Ethnography of the Nations of the Far East FEB RAS, Vladivostok, Russia. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Dmitry Shmonin, Far Eastern Federal University, Vladivostok, Russia. E-mail: email@example.com
The paper deals with problems connected with providing security of Russia’s Far-Eastern border in the early 20th century. Understanding security as the state of safety from external and internal threats, the authors analyze the standing of border and customs control at land and sea borders of the Russian Far East in conditions of free port regime and effect of 50-verst zone of free trade. The source base of the research consists mostly the materials of the Russian State Historical Archive of the Far East which had not been published before. The document analysis shows that local authorities, from enlisted men of Ussuriysk Cossack troops to Amur Governor General, were seriously concerned with the distress the Far-Eastern border suffered in early 20th century. In a brief historiographical review, the authors emphasize that the topic of border defense in pre-revolutionary Russia was reflected in many papers of Russian historians who, normally, reviewed it from the viewpoint of separate agencies. This paper, on the contrary, makes an attempt to apply complex approach by reviewing the integral activities of diverse agencies aimed at completing the common task: providing for security of the Far-Eastern border. The paper gives a common description of a wide range of problems, questions are set, hypotheses put forward, and, therefore, the directions for the further research on the topic, which has not lost its relevance nowadays, are identified.
Key words: state border, border post, border commissioner, customs service, free port, trafficking, Cossacks, Honghuzi.
D.E. Buyanov. Relationships of spiritual Christians Molokans and orthodox population of Amur Oblast in late 19th — early 20th century (based on materials of “Kamchatskiye Eparkhialnye Vedomosti”)
Dmitry Buyanov, Amur State University, Blagoveshensk, Russia. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
The paper studies the issue of social and economic relationships of spiritual Christians Molokans and orthodox population of Amur Oblast in the late 19th — early 20th century. The author focuses on religious differences and disputes between Orthodox churchmen and sectarians. The procedure of dogmatic discussions, the parties’ arguments and the believers’ behavior are analyzed. The issues of church building and influence of economic factors on the decisions made by Blagoveshchensk Archdiocese of Russian Orthodox Church are studied. The marriage institution in Molokans and Orthodox Christians is reviewed. Cases of forced marriages and cases of conversion are described. The economic situation in Amur Oblast and the contribution to the region’s development made by spiritual Christians Molokans. The economic relationship aspects between diverse religious communities are named. The issues regarding introduction of new Molokan community members to the sectarian society and conversion of Orthodox Christians to Molokan faith with the purpose of getting economic aid are discussed. It is shown that church management was deeply concerned with Orthodox Christians’ runoff to sects. Church periodicals of the late 19th — early 20th century were used for preparing this work; the position of the Russian Orthodox Church in general was taken into consideration. The author comes to a conclusion that fundamental faith dogmata, motivation and economic prosperity of Molokans are connected. Relationships between Molokans and orthodox Christians is seen as a background process taking place during the entire period studied thanks to growth of religious tolerance.
Key words: Amur Oblast, Russian Orthodox Church, confessions, spiritual Christians Molokans, religious disputes, interconfessional relationships, church building principles, marriage, society.
A.V. Druzyaka. “Themis’ stepchildren” or the last outpost of the law? Notaries in the Russian Far East and in Manchuria (1897—1930)
Andrey Druzyaka, Department of History of Russia Blagoveshchensk State Pedagogical University. E-mail: email@example.com
The paper tells the development history of the social and legal institution of notarial services in the Russian Far East and Manchuria. In the period between 1880 and 1897 preceding its establishment in the regional justice authority system, the most important functions on legal regulation of the growing civil turnover were fulfilled by public elective notaries of town self-government which favored rapid town growth and market relationship development. In 1897, notarial services were established in the Russian Far East’s justice authority system. Its continuous evolutionary development which lasted for more than a century, being in high demand in diverse historical circumstances, successful practice of the notarial institution’s integration with other governmental and public institutions prove its great public importance.
Based on archive documents introduced to academic audience for the first time, the paper gives general characteristics of notarial authorities which functioned in the Russian Far East in diverse historical circumstances. The author focuses on biographical facts of Far-Eastern notaries who wrote the first chapters in the history of regional notarial institutions. Analysis of the Far-Eastern notaries’ continuous development allows to draw conclusions on specific features of its institutionalization, procedural and legal transformation in different periods, identify the most characteristic features of the notaries’ activity and its significance in the general regional historical context.
Key words: notaries, social and legal institution, Russian Far East, Manchuria.
D.A. Butyrin. Activity of the Oriental Institute Connected with Foreign Press Censorship (1901—1904)
Dmitry Butyrin, Journalism and Publishing Business Chair, School of Humanities, Far-Eastern Federal University, Vladivostok. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Based on documents from the Russian State Archive of the Far East, the paper describes the experience of the Oriental Institute as a censorship body for foreign periodicals in Vladivostok before the Russo-Japanese War. In the early 20th century, the Head Department for Press Affairs requested the Chancery of Amur Governor General to order the Conference of the Oriental Institute to censor titles in Oriental and European languages. In this case, the council was involved in censoring foreign periodicals for several years, whereas the professors and teachers were not on the staff of the oversight body but performed contracts. It was found out that work with newspapers and books made professors constantly remember the important protective functions of censorship which resulted in heightened attention to censoring work which included both admission of permitted books and readership analysis. The analysis performed by censors contained a number of remarks which frequently had recommendatory nature about foreigners resident in the Russian Far East. It was found out that, thanks to the initiative of the Oriental Institute’s employees, censorship was introduced not only for Japanese and Chinese newspapers which frequently contained negative messages about the Russian Empire and were not always desirable for importing to the country but also for Korean press. When the Russo-Japanese War began (1904), the Oriental Institute’s Conference terminated its work.
Key words: Vladivostok, Oriental Institute, À.Ì. Pozdneev, Å.G. Spalvin, G.V. Podstavin, N.V. Remezov, censorship.
Vadim Agapov, Far Eastern Federal University, Vladivostok, Russia. E-mail: email@example.com
The paper deals with soldiers’ letters from the World War I front printed in 1914—1915 in Far-Eastern newspapers Dalny Vostok, Dalyokaya Okraina (Vladivostok), Priamurye (Khabarovsk), Amursky Liman (Nikolaevsk-on-Amur) and Ekho (Blagoveshchensk). The letters were delivered to newspapers for publishing by the addressees themselves: kin and friends of the front-line soldiers. The editor’s office of Dalny Vostok purposefully asked the newspaper’s readers to send the messages received from the battlefield “due to significant public interest of such documents” promising to return the letters to their owners upon copying.
The paper shows the role of letters in war propaganda of the war’s beginning period. Numerous quotations from the stories of Amur soldiers about the war published in media are given allowing to track the change of attitude to the war, its image and the German enemy’s image in the warriors’ mind in fall 1914 to spring 1915. Special attention is given to the problem of censorship regarding correspondence with the front and the reasons of letter publishing cessation in summer 1915. Publishing the solders’ impressions did not always show the trappings of the war resulting in displeasure of officials. When the Russian army began stepping back in spring 1915, the censorship became more severe and Far-Eastern newspapers stopped publishing soldiers’ letters.
Key words: World War I, Far East, Vladivostok, newspapers, letters from the front.
Tatiana Krupa, Far Eastern Federal University, Vladivostok, Russia. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
The paper studies distinguishing features of Primorsky Krai’s middle class. Using the questionnaire method, its self-concept criteria were studied. A peripheral part of the middle class with at least secondary education, employed outside of physical labor field and identifying themselves as middle class, was interviewed, namely, students. The following was included into the social status self-concept criteria: income, property, professionalism, economic behavior type, living standards, social evaluations, adaptation methods and self-identity.
The research target was the studentship’s social status as a peripheral part of the middle class in Primorsky Krai; its subject was analysis of its social self-esteem criteria in case of possible self-identification as middle class. Extension department students paying for their education, i.e. professional employees requiring specialized education, participated in the questionnaire.
The study’s hypothesis that more than a half respondents would intuitively identify themselves as middle class while not meeting the objective criteria of this social group was confirmed. The said group’s living standards are above the poverty line but not high enough for them to qualify as middle class.
The most respondents identify themselves with the latter, even those who don’t belong to it according to their external signs, which proves their own social well-being as the region’s average. The unique character of the peripheral part of the middle class interviewed in Primorsky Krai is in its inflated self-esteem: 63% identify themselves as the latter, as they believe to have the average regional income; in Russia meanwhile, according to Levada Center’s rates, this indicator is much lower and amounts to 35%.
Key words: middle class, peripheral part of the middle class, social status, self-concept criteria, living standards, self-identity, adaptation.
S.A. Mostovoi. The gardens of the new and old capital cities during Japan’s modernization period, the late 19th and early 20th centuries
Sergei Mostovoi, Far Eastern Federal University, Vladivostok, Russia. E-mail: email@example.com
The paper studies distinctive features of the Japanese garden’s evolution during the Meiji period (1868—1912). The topic is relevant, as during that time Japan made the transition from feudalism to capitalism and began its modernization on Western basis that had an impact on the development of Japanese material culture. The paper analyzes the influence of the public policy on the development of the national garden art. The Japanese approaches to the garden’s transformation are reviewed in the context of urban development of the new capital Tokyo and old capital Kyoto, the traditional centers of the garden culture. The significance of foreign architects and notable historical figures in the development of green open spaces and new garden forms is evaluated. New historical sources of the Meiji period, such as the government regulation on the establishment of parks, published interviews with garden makers, visual materials of urban redevelopment projects, public green spaces and gardens, are introduced to the research field. The analysis of various garden types (botanical gardens, shrine gardens, private gardens) and parks, including the destroyed objects of the garden art (gardens of Rokumeikan and The 4th National Industrial Exhibition) allowed to identify specific ways of garden landscape’s creation and to understand the early experience of European artistic values’ assimilation in Japanese culture.
Key words: architecture, botanical garden, westernization, history of Japan, Kyoto, Meiji, park, city development, garden art, Tokyo, traditions, Japanese garden.
Svetlana Beloglazova, Institute of History, Archaeology and Ethnography of the Peoples of the Far East FEB RAS, Vladivostok, Russia. E-mail: Beloglazov1@yandex.ru
Based on regulatory acts in the field of education, the paper analyzes the basic aspects of schooling reform of 1937 in Northeast China (Manchuria). Special consideration is given to the policy of Japanese occupational government towards Russian schools before World War II. The latter are compared with educational systems in the territories adjacent to Manchuria.
Creation of Manchukuo was a part of Japan’s imperial project and Japanese government was interested in using Russian diaspora for settling Japan’s internal and foreign-policy problems. Russian school’s reform was aimed at instilling loyalty to Japan in Russian emigrants and at adapting them to day-to-day realia of Manchukuo so as to use the Russian diaspora youth’s intellectual and physical potential to the benefit of Japanese administration. Due to specific character of its historic development and education, Russian emigrants were a group fittest for work at industrial enterprises, so they were seen as a human resource for the empire’s accelerated industrialization. Governmentalization of the Russian educational system in Manchukuo, its ideologization and Japanization intended to accelerate the formation of the Russian emigrants’ new self-identification in the empire created by Japan gained in popularity from the beginning of extensive warfare against the republican China.
Key words: China, Manchuria, Manchukuo, educational policy, Russian schooling, educational legislation, schooling reform.
V.E. Boldyrev. Prospects of Arctic development: opinions of academic circles, business and society in the USA and Canada
Vitaliy Boldyrev, Institute of History, Archaeology and Ethnography of Peoples of the Far East FEB RAS, Vladivostok, Russia. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
The articles analyzes the US and Canadian opinions of researchers and experts on Arctic’s future, prospects of business development in the region and public viewpoints on these issues. The volume of each country’s operations in the North determines the contents of today’s discussion. In the US academic circles, the research is connected mainly with political and security issues. The US corporations pay more attention at issues of Alaska’s social and economic development, whereas general public in the USA pays almost no attention at the national Arctic’s problems. Unlike the US, Canada is one of the largest northern countries, so current economic development issues of the North are in the limelight. This statement is also true in regard to the expert and academic community, major resource corporations and other groups of society. Scientists stand for revising the current policy of the government, supposing that economic policy should be focused on synthesis of up-to-date and traditional economic culture. Business circles believe that development is possible in case of introducing advanced technologies. Representatives of general public maintaining close contacts with indigenous communities show their interest to North development. According to them, the further industrial development of the region must not contravene the interests of its indigenous inhabitants, not to speak of threatening their environment. In general, prospects of North-American Arctic are connected with settling legal issues, economic and technological development, shelf research, shipping intensification and co-existence of the indigenous and contemporary culture.
Key words: Arctic, North, USA, Canada, academic research, government, researchers, business, society.
Nikolay Goryachev, Institute of History, Archaeology and Ethnography of the Peoples of the Far East FEB RAS, Vladivostok, Russia. E-mail: email@example.com
The paper analyzes historical aspects of social and economic development of Republic of Peru for the last 50 years; two stages of this process are identified. The first stage (1968—2000) includes social and economic transformations on which later the second stage was based (from 2000 until the present moment), the stage of Peru’s active integration and cooperation with countries of the Pacific Rim. Economic policies of the governments headed by J. Velasco Alvarado, F. Morales Bermudes, F. Belaunde Terry, A. Garcia Peres and A. Fujimori, at the first stage, and by A. Toledo, A. Garcia Peres and O. Umala, at the second stage, are analyzed in turn. Also the grounds of reforms made are reviewed, the regulatory acts legimitizing them and basic results achieved are enumerated. The factors preventing the governments from pursuing full-scale integration policy at each stage are studied. The objectives of Peru’s participation in integration processes in the Pacific Rim are identified. The main results of integration and cooperation, free trade agreements made by the Republic with the USA and PRC, are mentioned. A conclusion is drawn that the reforms, developing a uniform economic policy regardless of the government’s ideological orientation, legalization of integration policy basis and beneficial international climate favored successful integration of Peru into the Pacific Rim. In addition, the problems are mentioned preventing Peru from intensification of its integration and cooperation with Pacific Rim countries at the present stage: severe social stratification, high poverty rate and the drug trafficking problem.
Key words: Peru, integration, Pacific Rim, APEC, social and economic development, historical aspects of integration, Latin America.
Ksenia Petrunko, Center for Social and Economic Research of China IFES RAS, Moscow; IACP FEB RAS, Vladivostok, Russia. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
China’s rampant economic development over a reformation and openness period lasting for more than thirty years is connected mainly with using cheap labor force and almost free natural resources. Chinese rapid economic growth in the beginning of the 21st century for the most part was determined by the large-scale investments, directed to the transport complex modernization. It stimulates spatial and economic development of China, strengthens its integrity and international significance. The country enters the new development epoch with a new strategy in which innovations are the development drivers.
Civil aviation is one of the most rapidly developing branch of China’s transportation industry. In recent years, China has additionally expanded its route network, making it world’s second air transport system in volume. The paper analyzes the modern state of civil aviation, aircraft building and infrastructure objects of China’s air transport. The role of innovations in development of the air carriage branch is studied; innovation examples in civil aviation and measures taken by Civil Aviation Administration of China for providing security of air transport are given. Characteristic features of major companies on China’s air carriage market are given, its aircraft park structure is studied. The factors restraining the development of China’s air carriage branch are identified, such as insufficient openness of the air area, growth of prices for high-quality aircraft fuel, significant shortage in qualified air staff and land flight safety services, insufficient development and overload of the airport infrastructure.
Key words: Civil aviation development in PRC, passenger turnover, air traffic safety, satellite navigation systems, infrastructure objects of air transport, air carriage market in PRC, cost efficiency of air carriers, civil aircraft building in PRC, aircraft park.
I.V. Stavrov. New government’s ideology: Xi Jinping’s book “On State administration”. A review
L.I. Gallyamova. International research conference “Awar which is not over: non-healing wounds (to the 70th anniversary of the end of World War II)”
A WORD ABOUT A COLLEAGUE
L.I. Gallyamova, Yu.N. Osipov Mikhail Svetachev, scientist, educator and science organizer