INTEGRATION PROCESSES IN THE NORTH PACIFIC
Sergei Pestsov, Institute of History, Archaeology and Ethnography of the Peoples of the Far East, FEB RAS, Vladivostok, Russia. E-mail firstname.lastname@example.org.
Notable increase of a number of integration projects in different regions of the world from the mid-1980s transformed regionalism into global phenomenon full of substantial and organizational variations and an important element of the overall architecture of world economy and safety. The article tries to reveal the reasons and factors causing the peculiarity of regionalism in different regions of the world using the idea of overall context of regional cooperation. Its character is defined by several key factors geopolitical, socio-regulatory, start positions, goal orientations. Specific character of the indicated factors and peculiarities of their combination allow distinguishing several basic patterns of modern regionalism which in some circumstances turn out to be clearly connected with certain geographical spaces. In the case of the territory, conditionally definable as the North Pacific, we can talk only about a potential (probable) not fully formed region developing across several geographical spaces. Correspondingly, the difficulties of building cooperative interactions between the states of the North Pacific are specified additionally with the fact that, by virtue of being different geographical spaces, these countries represent different patterns of regionalism. In conclusion, there is a brief examination of the examples illustrating and confirming practical effect of coexistence and interaction of identified patterns of regionalism.
Key words: regionalism, regionalization, regional integration, regional organizations.
Andrej Volynchuk, Far Eastern Federal University, Vladivostok, Russia. E-mail: email@example.com.
Jana Volynchuk, Vladivostok State University of Economics and Service, Vladivostok, Russia. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
The article examines certain results of Russian-Chinese collaboration which was profoundly affected by global political situation in 2015. Last year was hard for the Russian Federation: the crisis in the south-east of Ukraine, sanctions confrontation with the countries of the West, the war in Syria — these and other foreign policy challenges were aggravated by the set of economic and political problems. Continued global crisis, a long-run trend on reduction of energy prices, the sanctions restricted the room for manoeuvers for Russia considerably during the promotion of current as well as prospective integration projects at the Eurasian continent. The weakness of the economic stand of Moscow predetermines the formation of new, less favourable conditions for cooperation with its partners which are not going to work against their national interests. The most notorious projects and areas of cooperation between the governments of Russia and the People’s Republic of China in trading, investment, financial, military technical, and infrastructure sectors are analysed in the paper. The authors suppose that for a number of economic and political reasons the Russian Federation didn’t manage to intensify the eastern direction of its development to the full extent. Above all, it is confirmed by slowdown of Russian-Chinese collaboration which in fact takes the form of the deferred partnership.
Key words: Russian-Chinese relations, economic cooperation, integration projects, strategic partnership, deferred partnership.
S.A. Ivanov. Without authority, resources and aims: how do regional authorities of the Russian Far East promote economic cooperation with China
Ivanov Sergei, Institute of History, Archaeology and Ethnography of the Peoples of the Far East, FEB RAS, Vladivostok, Russia. E-mail: email@example.com.
The article analyzes the potential of regional authorities of the Russian Far East to promote economic cooperation with China. Since the world financial crisis, subordinate entities of the Russian Federation have been experiencing a severe shortage of resources due to the diminishing centralized subsidies. Foreign economic ties could have compensated the shortage. But the Russian Far East lacks large business and competitive industries (besides natural resources ones), so regional authorities are the only possible leading force to promote foreign cooperation. The paper investigates the competences of the local governments, their attitude towards China, their partners and channels of cooperation. The research is based on the study of legislative framework, official regional development programs and mass media materials.
The main conclusion of the paper is that regional authorities have few opportunities to play significant role in the process of economic integration of the Russian Far East and China. They dispose a limited set of competences which can be used to promote foreign economic cooperation, but budget deficit make their implementation irrational. The lack of resources is accompanied by the lack of clear and consistent policy in cooperation with China. Current regional development strategies and other local documents do not propose specific mechanism to transmit cooperation with China into the development of local economy. The existing system of political and administrative contacts with Chinese provinces is inertia driven and cannot lead to big economic effects.
Key words: China, administrative ties, Far East, regional authorities, Sino-Russian cooperation.
Vladimir Kozhevnikov, Institute of History, Archaeology and Ethnography of the Peoples of the Far East, FEB RAS, Vladivostok, Russia. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
The article analyses a current state of Russian-Japanese political relations since S. Abe became Prime-Minister of Japan from December 2012 until March 2016. During the inauguration, along with other goals which were in front of the government, S. Abe proclaimed the intention to activate Russian-Japanese relations in order to solve the territorial question and to conclude a peace treaty. In 2013, active contacts of the leaders of two countries started, but after the events in the Ukraine and the Crimea the situation changed sharply. Japan joined the sanctions against Russia, but it was still important for Tokyo to maintain close relations with Moscow which was determined not only by S. Abe’s intention to reach a decision about the territorial question and to conclude the treaty of peace but also by the rise of the position of Japan in East Asia. In turn, Russia seeked to improve the relations with Japan in order to get away from the sanctions introduced by the US and by the states of the West. The negotiating process between Russia and Japan which has been on in recent years is examined in detail. The recent negotiations of Deputy Ministers of Foreign Affairs of both countries in Tokyo (February 2016) which brought to the agreement of S. Lavrov’s visit to Tokyo and S. Abe’s unofficial visit to Russia in spring 2016 are reviewed. The author concludes that so expected visit of Vladimir Putin to Japan V. Putin’s possible visit to Japan won’t lead to the conclusion of a peace treaty.
Key words: Russia, Japan, US, China, Russian-Japanese relations, territorial problem, peace treaty, negotiations of the President of the Russian Federation and the Prime-Minister of Japan S. Abe.
Valery Mishin, Institute of History, Archaeology and Ethnography of the Peoples of the Far East, FEB RAS, Vladivostok, Russia. Email: email@example.com.
The research objective is to try to understand the real possibilities and prospects of integrative interaction between the Russian Federation and the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea. The article contains the analysis of statistics and information about the state of integrative constituent of Russia and the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea. The problems and opportunities of bilateral trade and economic relations, investment cooperation, and realization of common initiatives are studied. Separately, the question of place and role of North Korea in integrative field of Pacific Russia is examined. Legal and regulatory framework, numbers and facts which characterize modern tendencies of cooperation and partnership are presented. The research of the state of foreign economic possibilities of the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea is complicated by the shortage of reliable and complete information. Official economic statistics of North Korea is almost inaccessible and hasn’t been published for a long time. The analysis of the relations of the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea with the outside world is aggravated by the fact that it’s not always possible to check the factual material, and the numbers differ substantially in different national and foreign sources. The author, basing on available materials, pursues the objective to show the real state of Russian and North Korean trade and economic relations and assumes that with Kim Jong-un’s coming to power Pyongyang’s interest was shown towards the economic integration with Russia at the expense of the increase in the volume of trade, attracting investments in special economic zones (SEZ), creation of joint ventures, capital investment, and modern technology implementation. Attention is paid to the role of the Russian involved governmental agencies and the federal subjects of the Russian Far East and Siberia in collaboration with the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea. The leading role is given to Primorsky Region being the nearest frontier neighbor of North Korea.
Key words: Democratic People ’s Republic of Korea, Pacific Russia, integration, special economic zones, Kim Jong-un, Primorsky Region.
V.E. Boldyrev. Trans-Pacific partnership: a new leadership factor of the United States in the Asia-Pacific Region and Pacific Russia
Vitalii Boldyrev, Institute of History, Archaeology and Ethnography of the Peoples of the Far East, FEB RAS, Vladivostok, Russia. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
The article analyses the transformations of American trade and economic relations with the countries of the Asia-Pacific Region. Key ones are connected with forming integration association — Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP). US government apprehension of the country may be excluded from Pacific integration process determined that it joined the negotiations. The goal of its participation is to turn TPP into forum providing US trade and economic interests in the region. US experience of participation in regional and subregional associations as well as two-track free trade interaction are the basis of the course TPP. It had been reflected in the TPP agreement signed by ministers of trade. Relying upon existing trade and economic links with members of the agreement and using its provisions US are possible to form new architecture of its relations which will be beneficial mostly to advanced mechanical engineering branches. Under its influence American partners may be divided into three groups: the centre, half-periphery, raw materials and half raw materials periphery. Because of raw materials character of Pacific Russia economy, its technological disadvantage from TPP leaders and high role of state regulation this agreement doesn’t correlate with Russian interest to develop Pacific regions of the country.
Key words: USA, Trans-Pacific Partnership, integration, Asia-Pacific Rim, Pacific Russia.
V.N. Elizariev. Peculiarities of Soviet-Japanese competition in the development of oilfield in Sakhalin in the second half of the 20s of the 20th century
Vitalij Elizariev, Far Eastern State Transport University, Sakhalin Institute of Railway Transport, Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk, Russia. E-mail: email@example.com.
The paper examines young Soviet state’s search and development of measures for neutralization of political and economic benefits of Japan specified by not only onrush of economy but also by subject-matter of treaties with the Russian Empire; as a result, Japan obtained unlimited access to raw materials resources. The specifics of concessionary scheme of the USSR towards Japan in North Sakhalin in 1925—1930 are analysed when the initial creation stage of Soviet petroleum Sakhalin industry transformed into the competition of various political systems for energy resources access of the island that became a major problem for Tokyo in the incipient conflict with Washington.
The factors promoting an intensive struggle around Japanese oil concession in North Sakhalin are studied. Financial, technical, and economic superiority of Japan in the Far East as well as growing militarization of this country demanded immediate action from the USSR in creation of its own oil industry and neutralization of external threats. During this time period, a new strategic course of relationship building between Moscow and Tokyo with the focus of attention on Sakhalin oil was elaborated.
The relevance of the topic is determined not only by sharp contradictions which appeared during the realization of the concession agreement but also by the fact that the experience of foreign capital adoption became a testing laboratory in the preparation of modern use of oil fields in Sakhalin shelf area at the end of the twentieth century and the beginning of the twenty-first century.
Key words: Japan, USSR, North Sakhalin, oil concession, Sakhalinneft trust, concessionary scheme of the USSR in 1925—1930, economic competition, Far Eastern policy of Japan.
D.V. Kiba. Tourist relations as a factor of intercultural dialogue between Japan and the USSR in the 1920s—1930s
Darya Kiba, Komsomolsk-on-Amur State Technical University, Komsomolsk-on-Amur, Russia. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
The article analyses the development of Soviet-Japanese tourist relations in the 1920s—1930s. It was revealed that ordinary travellers as well as intellectuals of the Soviet Union made tourist trips to Japan. Japanese tourists of that period can be divided into two groups: the first one consisted of people who were interested in Russian culture and visited the Soviet Union purposefully; the second one consisted of transit tourists. The trips of the artistic and scientific intellectuals are viewed as cultural tourism which allowed travellers to get acquainted with cultural identity of Japanese and Russian cultures. Basing on archive documents and materials of periodical press, the author demonstrates the influence of the artistic intelligentsia of the USSR and Japan on musical, theatrical, dancing evolution of the countries.
The research studies the activity of the travel companies of Japan (“Japan Tourist Bureau”, the agencies in Kobe), the work of the representative office “Intourist” in Tokyo. The author assumes that tourist relations of the countries promoted tolerance and ethnic relativism in a certain group of Japanese and Soviet society. The paper describes the factors which restrained the development of tourist contacts of both countries and prevented rapprochement between people: unsatisfactory service of tourists in the Soviet Union, negative reactions of the right-wing forces of Japan on the trips to the USSR, a language barrier, political investigation in the land of the rising sun.
The author mentions that tourist contacts of two countries became more active in the 1920s and developed until the middle 1930s. But in the latter half of the 1930s, their intensity plunged as a result of strained relations between the countries and boundary disputes. The author concludes that a positive result of tourist contacts was achieved due to image-building of the “foreign” culture in perception of the intellectuals who became a cultural “bridge” and united the USSR and Japan.
Key words: cultural tourism, phenomenon of “Japanism”, artistic intelligentsia, ethnocentrism, ethnic relativism, transit passengers, “Intourist” office.
RUSSIA’S PACIFIC: HISTORY AND CONTEMPORARY PERIOD
Maxim Os’kin, Institute of Jurisprudence and Management of the All-Russian police association, Tula, Russia. E-mail: email@example.com.
The article is devoted to food procurements in Eastern Siberia and the Far East for the supply of the front during the First World War. Involvement of the outskirts of the Russian Empire into the supply of the front was a primary objective of the government which had encountered the lack of availability of food resources for army provision. The Ministry of Agriculture purchased meat and fish above all in these regions. European Russia had enough bread, but meat supply for the army was a substantial problem. “The meat crisis” started to grow from 1915, the meat unit started to decrease in 1916. Meat shortage forced to increase the share of fish products in food procurement in the Far East. Chum salmon and pink salmon were supposed to hold a significant place in the army ration. The fish purchase for the front was organized from 1916; both fishery managers, fishing companies, and individuals got involved. The Ministry of Agriculture organized the building of special stocks and production of refrigerator vans for shipment and storage, but the stored food export turned out to be restricted by the capacity of the Trans-Siberian Railway and shortage of cars which was considerably connected with the priority dispatch of overseas military cargo from Vladivostok. In 1917, the revolutionary events in Russia led to aggravation of the national crisis that made the problem of supply support of the front with Far Eastern fish irrelevant.
Key words: Ministry of Agriculture, meat unit, supply of the army, Kamchatka fishery.
Vadim Agapov, Far Eastern Federal University, Vladivostok, Russia, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Dmitry Butyrin, Far Eastern Federal University, Vladivostok, Russia, E-mail: email@example.com.
In autumn 1905, a strained situation emerged in Vladivostok. Under the influence of the defeat in the Russo-Japanese War and the beginning of the revolution in Russia the garrison morale aggravated. The soldiers complained about non-payment of money for construction of fortifications, shabby uniform, poor food. Officer personnel weren’t on top of issues and didn’t settle the situation. On October 30—31, there was a riot in the city which led to numerous massacres, arsons, and acts of violence against civilian population.
The article aims to analyse the peculiarities of coverage of these events in Vladivostok press of that time. The information about legal position of the press and its relations with the administration is presented in the article according to the documents of the Russian State Historical Archive of the Far East. The principal sources of information are selections of newspapers “Dal’niy Vostok” (from the collection of Arseniev State Museum of Primorsky Region) and “Vladivostok” (from the collection of the Russian State Historical Archive of the Far East, The State Archive of Primorsky Territory, and The Amur Region Research Society).
The newspapers didn’t come out for several days until disorders continued, but later on, in November-December 1905, they presented many discussions about the reasons, process and consequences of what had happened. In the columns of “Dal’niy Vostok” many eyewitness accounts, individual and collective letters from the soldiers with their complaints and demands were published. “Vladivostok” and “Vladivostokskiy listok” conducted their own investigation which influenced the representation by the procurator of Vladivostok district court about the reasons and the process of the uprising in Vladivostok on October 30—31.
As a result, the polarization of Vladivostok periodicals according to their political line started with the coverage of October events; it was manifested to the full extent in the second stage of the revolution during the uprising in January 1906.
Key words: Revolution of 1905—1907, Manifesto of 17 October, Vladivostok, uprising of October 30—31, 1905, periodicals, newspapers, “Dal’niy Vostok”, “Vladivostok”, “Vladivostokskiy listok”, V.A. Panov, N.V. Remezov, L.P. Podpakh.
INVITATION TO DISCUSSION
V.A. Turaev. Civilizing mission of Russians in cultural space of Pacific Russia and problems of Post-Soviet integration
Vadim Turaev, Institute of History, Archaeology and Ethnography of the Peoples of the Far East, FEB RAS, Vladivostok, Russia. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
The article analyses the civilizing mission of Russians in cultural space of Pacific Russia. Two aspects are highlighted: the development of the Pacific territories and the spread of European rules of law and cultural values among indigenous ethnic groups. The sources of influence are government, church, ordinary Russian people — the Kozaks, farmers, civil servants who were among the initiators of reforms. The components of success of the civilizing mission are shown: absence of the complex “folk-master”, absence of the superiority feeling over aboriginal inhabitants, the ability to not only open the ethnic variety of Eurasian space but to become a part of this diversity, widespread occurrence of the Russian language, protective policy of the government which defended the indigenous people against possible conflicts with strangers. A new phase in the civilized interaction of Russians with their eastern neighbors was the incorporation of Primorye and Priamurye into Russia in the middle of the nineteenth century. Active resettlement of Chinese and Koreans to the South of the Far East was possible only with the appearance of Russians who had made this territory attractive for migrants. The continuation of the civilizing mission of Russians in Eurasian space in new political and economic conditions is regarded as a crucial component of national security. The fundamental differences of the integrative potential of Russian and West European civilizations in the current context are demonstrated.
Key words: Pacific Russia, civilizing mission of Russians, indigenous people, orthodox Church, Russia in China and China in Russia, Russian civilizing mission under new conditions, multiculturalism as a new form of colonialism.
Elena Sidorenko, Institute of History, Archaeology and Ethnography of the Peoples of the Far East, FEB RAS, Vladivostok, Russia. E-mail: email@example.com.
The Paleometal epoch (2000—1000 BCE) in Primorye is characterized by the diffusion of bronze and iron goods and fabrication techniques as well as by global population movements; subsequently, the communication density of members of different cultures advanced in the region. Mapping and radiocarbon dating of monument of the Paleometal epoch showed coexistence and communication of different but chronologically close cultures: Final-Neolithic, Lidovskaya, Sinegayskaya, Yankovskaya, and Krounovskaya. The models of intercultural communication are revealed and characterized which are restored by the archeological sources. The following forms of contacts are archeologically grounded: assimilation, armed conflict, peaceful coexistence, adoption of certain elements of culture, composition of new ethnic teams. The proof of possible military operations and armed conflicts in the region is construction of the first sites of ancient settlements. During this time period, the people of the Lidovskaya culture started to raise fortifications in strategically important places on the coast which were supposed to defend from invasion from the people of the Yankovskaya culture from seaward. The expansion of the people of the Yankovskaya culture in Central and South East Primorye led to almost full assimilation of aboriginal populations or to partial assimilation and creation of new syncretical communities. Archeologically, the first model of assimilation is shown in rudimentary preservation of aboriginal features, the second model is revealed in syncretism of traditions when defining characteristics of different cultures are fixed in the complex or at a jar. Peaceful coexistence is archeologically traced in appearance of traditional complexes or one-off items according to the new patterns or elements of other cultures. For instance, in the complexes of the Lidovskaya culture ornamental plots typical for other cultures of the Paleometal epoch appear which allow reconstructing communications with the Yankovskaya archeological culture (YC) (moulded knobbles, moulded handles, ornament in the form of inclined and stepped figures, L-shaped form of corona), the Samarginskaya AC (perforation of corona zone), and the Bolshebuhtinskaya AC of Priamurye (pearl ornament).
Key words: Paleometal epoch, Priamurye, Lidovskaya culture, Yankovskaya culture, Krounovskaya culture, Sinegayskaya culture, intercultural communication, assimilation, peaceful coexistence, syncretism of cultural traditions, armed conflict.
N.A. Kluyev. Archaeological activity of G.I. Andreev in Primorye (on the 90th anniversary of the birth of the scientist)
Nickolay Kluyev, Institute of History, Archaeology and Ethnography of the Peoples of the Far East, FEB RAS, Vladivostok, Russia. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
The article assesses archaeological activities of G.I. Andreyev in Primorye Territory in fifties — sixties of XX c. G.I. Andreyev, a pupil of famous Russian archaeologist S.V. Kiselev, was one of the first specialists started regular researches in Primorye in that time. During 6 field research seasons he had discovered and investigated about 100 archaeological sites. Most wide scale excavations were done by him in Valentin-Peresheyek, Moriak-Rybolov, Zaisanovka-1 and Zapovednoye-3 settlements. Basing on results of his researches he had published about 20 articles. Some of these articles were of general view devoted to Neolithic and Palaeometal epochs in Primorye, other articles contained publications of results of field researches and analysis of materials. Undoubtedly, a strong trait of G.I. Andreyev’s works was thorough typological analysis of archaeological materials. The author notes that this researcher was the first one who defended a thesis on archaeology of the region. Especially big contribution was made by G.I. Andreyev in study of Neolithic of Primorye Territory. He had distinguished Zaisanovskaya archaeological culture. His works on analysis of archaeological material of this culture have not lost their importance so far. The article summarizes main results of G.I. Andreyev’s works in sites of Yankovskaya culture of Early Iron Age of Primorye Territory.
The author comes to conclusion that archaeological researches of G.I. Andreyev in Primorye Territory are of a big scientific importance.
Key words: Primorye Territory, history of archaeology, G.I. Andreyev, Neolithic, Early Iron Age.
PLATFORM FOR YOUNG RESEARCHERS
Darya Nazarenko, Chang Jung Christian University, Tainan, Taiwan (ROC). E-mail: email@example.com.
The article analyses the development of the gambling market in South Korea from 1947 till 2014, the political and economic conditions of neighboring countries of East Asia, particularly, Macao. Current advantages in this area which create favourable conditions for gambling industry are examined.
The growth in popularity of gambling in Asia is obvious. Seoul tries to keep up with this tendency, but internal political and cultural peculiarities edit this process. For instance, a policy of access restriction of the citizens of the country to casino is pursued: among all legal institutions in the republic, only one is open to Koreans, others are focused on foreigners.
The paper studies the South Korean government’s arrangements for the improvement of economic performance of the country by means of the growth of the gambling market and describes the actions for restriction of negative influence on the social aspect of life of population. Taking into consideration a current state of the gaming industry in the world, the author hypothesizes about the successful development of this South Korean market in future.
Key words: gambling, South Korea, casino, prohibition, «Gangwon Land», foreigners, Incheon, policy, fine, PRC, online game, Macao, entertainment center, Japan.
G.P. Beloglazov. Russia and China: history in the midst of modernity
T.V. Krayushkina. Boats and musical instruments of the peoples of the world in visual anthropology