THE GREAT RUSSIAN REVOLUTION: EVENTS AND CONSEQUENCES
O.I. Sergeev. Introduction
L.I. Gallyamova. The Russian Far East in 1917: regional peculiarities of socio-political transformations
Ljudmila Galljamova, Institute of History, Archaeology and Ethnography of the Peoples of the Far East, FEB RAS, Vladivostok, Russia. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
The article describes the development of the revolutionary process in the Far Eastern region after the downfall of autocracy in February 1917. The importance of the further study of the history of the Great Russian Revolution is emphasized because understanding of such a huge and complex historical event requires a variety of methodological approaches and different perspectives. It is obvious that the necessity of the regional approach is of prime importance for the Russian Far East due to its geopolitical situation and significance. The author underlines that the socio-political development of the Far Eastern region occurred in line with Russian national tendencies and appropriateness. The First World War was a booster of social tension and provoked a systemic crisis in the country including the Far East. It was demonstrated by the fact that the Revolution was enthusiastically welcomed by the inhabitants of the Far East. The article analyzes the main stages of the development of the revolutionary movement in the region as well as the peculiarities and forms of socio-political transformations: creation of the Committees for State Security which represented the Provisional government, Soviets of Workers’ and Soldiers’ Deputies, democratization of local self-government, powerful increase of social and political activity, creation of various social and political organizations (parties, trade unions, etc.). Economic decline, popularity of socialist ideas associated with ancient collective traditions of peasants and proletarian collectivism, popularity of anti-bourgeois mood resulted in that finally in 1917, the enormous population group followed the Bolsheviks who pursued the policy according to the expectations of the masses.
Keywords: Russia, Far East, revolution, socio-political processes, democratization, transformations, Committees for State Security, Soviets, Constituent Assembly, deputies, parties, trade unions, Bolsheviks, Socialist Revolutionaries, Kadets, zemstvos.
O.A. Ustyugova. The Russian Far East in the system of foreign trade relations before and during the revolutions of 1917
Olga Ustyugova, Institute of History, Archaeology and Ethnography of the Peoples of the Far East, FEB RAS, Vladivostok, Russia. E-mail: email@example.com.
The article deals with the impact of the revolutions of 1917 on the development of foreign trade in the Russian Far East. The First World War, which preceded the revolutionary events, made significant and long-term changes in the nature of foreign trade in the region. The cessation of coastwise trade and the decline of traffic along the Siberian Railway caused difficulties in supplying the population with Russian goods which stimulated the growth of imports. Vladivostok became the only large port of Russia accessible to foreign vessels through which commercial sea shipping was carried out. As a result, the increased cargo turnover also changed qualitatively: the delivery of German goods, which had been mainly supplied to the Far East before the war, ceased, the main flow of cargo came from the USA, Japan and China. The unstable political and economic situation in the Far Eastern district, triggered by the revolutions in 1917, influenced the development of its foreign economic relations. There was a reduction in imports and exports as well as the transit of foreign goods (including Manchurian beans) which accounted for a significant part of the Vladivostok port’s freight turnover. There was a gradual decline in imports of goods from the United States. Japan strengthened its economic influence in the Russian Far East and in Manchuria; trade and economic relations with China became more complicated due to the depreciation of the ruble. In 1918, the reduction started in the import of military cargoes through the Vladivostok port as well as the reverse export of goods from the port warehouses.
Keywords: Russian Far East, World War I, revolutions of 1917, foreign trade, export, import.
A.S. Zakolodnaya. The activity of the Resettlement Department before and during the revolutionary events of 1917
Anna Zakolodnaja, Institute of History, Archaeology and Ethnography of the Peoples of the Far East, FEB RAS, Vladivostok, Russia. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Based on the archive materials, the article describes the main activities of the Resettlement Departmentin the Far East of Russia before and during the revolutionary events of 1917. It is shown that with the beginning of the First World War, the sphere of activity of the Resettlement Department expanded while the volume of usual works associated directly with the resettlement reduced. From 1915, the department began to organize and to serve the transportation of prisoners of war and sick and wounded soldiersreturning from the war, to evacuate families of settlers who were left without breadwinners from Siberia to European Russia, to render assistance to families called up for a military service and refugees. It took measures to prevent reduction of cultivated land beyond the Urals, organized the recruitment and transportation of the groups of Chinese and Korean workers from the Far East to the west of Russia, fought against epidemics, etc. Special attention is paid to consideration of activities of the Organization of agricultural storages and commodity stores of the Resettlement Departmentin 1917. By 1917, the Resettlement storehouses had virtually become the only organization supplying the population with agricultural equipment. During this year, the work of the Resettlement storageswas often complicated by interference of various public organizations in their activity which led to the disruption in the supply of goods necessary for peasants as well as to significant financial losses for the organization.
Keywords: Resettlement Department, Organization of agricultural storages and commodity stores, First World War, Revolution, 1917, Russian Far East.
Vasily Kuzmin, Far Eastern State Transport University, Khabarovsk, Russia. E-mail: email@example.com.
The author examines the activities of the organizations of the Socialist Revolutionary Party in the Far East in the period from March 1917 to September 1917. The article highlights the position of the party in the Russian political arena in 1917 and its attitude to the February revolution. A major attention is paid to the activities of Party organizations in the Far East. The author explores the consistency in pursuing party policy, the popularity of the Far Eastern Socialist Revolutionary organizations among the inhabitants of the region. A significant part of the article is devoted to the study of the activities of the Far Eastern Socialist Revolutionaries in local authorities — Committees of Public Safety, the Soviets of Workers’ and Soldiers’ Deputies, city dumas. The attention is also given to the tactics of the Socialist Revolutionaries, their alliance with the Mensheviks and the joint confrontation against the Bolsheviks. The author shows the reaction of the local population to the events in the center of the country highlighting the fact that not so much the crises of the Provisional Government as their work as local authorities influenced the fall of the popularity of the Social Revolutionaries. The elections to the Constituent Assembly clearly demonstrated the split among the Socialist Revolutionaries themselves which indicated a significant move of the mass to the left wing. For a while, the victory in the elections to zemstvos helped the Socialist Revolutionaries to retain the power, but it could not change the general tendency.
Keywords: Provisional Government, city dumas, Far East, zemstvos, Mensheviks, party, revolution, Soviets of Workers’ and Soldiers’ Deputies, Constituent Assembly, Socialist-revolutionaries.
Anatolij Kuzin, Sakhalin Institute of Railway Transport, Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk, Russia. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
The article considers the historical processes that took place in Northern Sakhalin under the influence of the fall of the autocratic monarchy in Russia and the victorious completion of the socialist revolution in October 1917. All problems are analyzed taking into account the internal political and international factors that predetermined the specific features of the establishment of Soviet power in Northern Sakhalin. It is emphasized that the local population didn’t participate in the political events and in the bourgeois-democratic movement, was unaware of the core activity of the Provisional Government and the Soviets which were created by the revolution. The proletarian stratum was insignificant and didn’t have its own organized Bolshevik unit. In comparison to Primorye, there were no large armed conflicts, small local Korean and Chinese population didn’t take part in the revolutionary events. Territorial remoteness and the island position of Sakhalin didn’t give an opportunity to use the experience of the Russian national revolutionary struggle. Furthermore, the penal past and the border vicinity of Northern Sakhalin with its south part, which had become a part of Japan after the defeat of Russia in the Russo-Japanese War in 1905, made a negative impact as well. Finally, the process of the sovietization of the territory, which began in January 1920, was interrupted by the invasion of the Japanese occupation troops and resumed only five years later after the subscription of the Final Act by the Authorized Representatives of the USSR and Japan and the establishment of the absolute sovereignty of the USSR in May 14, 1925.
Keywords: Northern Sakhalin, Nikolayevsk-on-Amur, Soviets, Revolutionary committee, working department, Committee of Public Safety, zemstvo, counterrevolution, Kolchak’s regime, intervention.
R.A. Badikov. “Volochaevka might have not occurred”: details about the failed Grodekovo offensive operation of the armed forces of the Far Eastern Republic (1921)
Roman Badikov, South Ural State University, Chelyabinsk, Russia. E-mail: email@example.com.
The article is concerned with the study in one relatively unknown chapter of history of the Civil war in the Russian Far East — the unrealized, left in the field of military plans and intentions, Grodekovo offensive operation of the armed forces of Far Eastern Republic (FER). Heinrich Khristoforovich Eiche, the author of the operation concept, and the FER hight military kommander, viewed it as a final step on the road of complete elimination of the White forces within the territory of the Russian East. This assessment was quite validated. The military commitment under consideration, if successful, should have resulted in the final crushing defeat by the FER regime of the last major packet of anti-Bolshevist resistance as at the beginning of 1921 — a socalled “Grodekovo plug” formed in Primorye (the region of the railroad station Grodekovo, village Razdolnoye, city Nikolsk-Ussuriyskiy) by the evacuated from Transbaikal in November—December 1920 remnants of the army of the warlord G.M. Semenov. Notwithstanding the significant level of headwork carried out by Eiche and other FER military leaders, the Grodekovo operation for a variety of political, cadre and other reasons was never put into action. The renunciation of the republican commanding elite of executing the operation stated in February—April 1921 turned into exceptionally negative consequences for the future of FER. Already in May, the White Guard forces concentrated in the “Grodekovo plug” went forth as a key pillar of support of the anti-Bolshevist military takeover in Primorye. As a result of the turnover, the Primorsky territory would be detached from the republic and used as a military foothold for the further aggression of the White Movement in 1921—1922, and afterwards triggered the strategic issue of Volochayevka and Spassk. The FER regime could have avoided such bad ending only by timely putting the plan of the Grodekovo offensive operation into effect in 1921. Therein lies a painfully learnt lesson.
Keywords: Russian Civil war, Russian Far East, Far Eastern Republic, People’s Revolutionary army, Grodekovo operation, “Grodekovo plug”, Heinrich Eiche.
Svetlana Beloglazova, Institute of History, Archaeology and Ethnography of the Peoples of the Far East, FEB RAS, Vladivostok, Russia. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
This article is devoted to the poorly studied in Russian historiography aspect of the history of Russian schools in the near abroad — the Soviet school reform on the CER. The retrospective reflection in connection with the results of the contemporary educational reform in Russia and discussions about the future of Russian-Chinese cooperation keep the research topic up to date. New materials from the departmental editions of the Chinese Eastern Railway are introduced into the scientific discourse. For the first time in the national historiography, the relationship is shown between the reform of the united school of the count P.N. Ignatyev, which had been launched during the prerevolutionary period and was continued on the CER in 1917—1923, and the Soviet reform of the united labour school, completed along the line of the road in the second half of the 1920s. A close connection between the teaching and educational process, ideology and politics was a distinctive feature of the Soviet school reform in comparison with the transformations of the previous period. At the same time, the school reform on the CER was correlated with the reform of the united labour school with the aim of integrating departmental schools in the educational space of the USSR and setting the formation of a new (Soviet) identity. The full range of measures for changing the network of departmental schools was implemented on the line of the CER in a very short time and finished with the introduction of a single type of the educational institution, the increase of departmental schools and pupils. The transformation of the educational process was based on new principles of training and forms of everyday practice adopted in Soviet schools and adapting pupils to a new socio-political reality. Due to the rivalry between the USSR and China for the possession of the CER, the system of departmental schools functioned in conditions of increasing administrative pressure from the Chinese side and the decline in influence of the Soviet administration, which led to the setback of the reform. A direct consequence of the political manifestations of the Chinese government was the redistribution of material resources of the school building accompanied by violation of rights of Russian children to get education who were the citizens of the USSR.
Keywords: China, Manchuria, USSR, CER, education policy, reform, school.
HISTORY AND CULTURE
Andrey Druzyaka, Blagoveshchensk State Pedagogical University, Blagoveshchensk, Russia. E-mail: email@example.com.
The article is devoted to the activities of public notaries in the Far East in the 1970s. A particular attention is paid to the formation of human resources and the administrative management system of the notary bodies. The main directions and activities of public notaries as well as the specifics of their work in the conditions of the Soviet state and legal regulation are also analysed.
In the 1970s, a network of regional notary bodies included a system of notaries in the regional, provincial and district towns and large administrative and industrial centers as well as the notaries at the periphery. The control authorities of the notaries were represented by the respective departments of justice of provincial and regional executive committees. Methodical and control functions were given to the “head” notary offices in the provincial and regional centers. In this period, notary bodies performed a wide range of actions to ensure the legitimate civil circulation as well as a number of regulatory, law enforcement, human rights, educational and fiscal functions.
On the basis of archival documents firstly introduced into scientific discourse, the article analyzes the main problems of the functioning of notaries within the specified period, the reasons for the low social status of its employees. By means of the department statistics, a high demand for notary in various strata of the population is observed. The notary remained a part of the state administrative and legal system in the Soviet period and limited a list of objects of civil circulation. However, due to the purposeful activity of notary bodies, an image of the “Bureau of good offices” was formed in this period which was intended to ensure the rights of citizens by providing a legal help.
Keywords: state notaries, notary, notaries, public-law institution, Far East.
Elena Rudnikova, Institute of History, Archaeology and Ethnography of the Peoples of the Far East, FEB RAS, Vladivostok, Russia. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
The article deals with the first stage of the Post-Soviet emigration to New Zealand. In the focus of attention is the specific group of emigrants: the former Soviet seamen who left their vessels without permission from 1991 to 2007 for the purpose of the constant settlement in this country. The main sources of research are the biographies of seamen — so-called “ship jumpers” — told by themselves, stories by eyewitnesses and the New Zealand news items of that time. The author examines the motives of decisions on emigration, the circumstances of the “jumps” from vessels, the features of primary adaptation in the new language environment, relationships with other Russian-speaking immigrants and the main strategies of legalization of the “jumpers” (a political refugee and/or a marriage partner with the women of New Zealand). Conclusions are illustrated by real stories of such strategies. A general portrait of social and demographic and cultural features of the group is created. There is the analysis of its approximate number. The author summarizes that the features of this group of emigrants consisted in a professional and gender structure, a legal status and legalization strategies. A degree of consolidation of this group depended on the threat of deportation and other external factors. In spite of the fact that the total number of such immigrants was small, the public response was rather high; therefore, “ship jumpers” became the most noticeable group during the initial period of the history of the Post-Soviet emigration in New Zealand.
Keywords: Russian immigrants, Soviet fishermen, “ship jumpers”, New Zealand, refugees, intermarriage.
Egor Bagrin, Presidential Library named after Boris Yeltsin, Russia. E-mail: email@example.com.
Alena Karpava, University of Granada, Granada, Spain. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
The article is devoted to the symbol of eight-pointed star, which is used in arts and crafts and in national symbols of Eurasia, North and South America, Africa, Australia and Oceania. The authors think that the presence of the star in all populated continents may be a consequence of intercultural communication that began in the prehistoric period. The most ancient centers where the symbol of eight-pointed star was known since the V—IV thousand BC are South-Eastern and Eastern China, Mesopotamia, South Turkmenia, the territory of Pastos and Otovalo in Ecuador and Colombia. Investigation discovers the possible pathways of the star expansion all over the world from the oldest areas of its existence. The authors suggest several hypothetical models of these processes. The research outlines the main options of the center of Eurasia the star could appear from in South America in ancient times: during migration through Beringia 10—12 thousands years ago or by sea connections at a later time. The presence of eight-pointed-star in Maori culture in New Zealand is considered separately. It could have been brought proposed from South-Eastern China due to the migration of people to Indonesia, Oceania and Polynesia that began 3 thousands years ago or from South America together with the Indians who had made the sea migration to the west, according to Thor Heyerdahl.
Keywords: eight-pointed star, arts and crafts, migration, Central Asia, Mesopotamia, Oceania, New Zealand, Ecuador, Huichol, Sumerians, Turks, Ancient Egypt, Babylon Empire, Christianity.
E.O. Kirillova. Cross-cultural interactions in literature of Russian Far East emigration: oriental mythology of Boris Yulsky
Elena Kirillova, Institute of History, Archaeology and Ethnography of the Peoples of the Far East, FEBRAS, Vladivostok, Russia. E-mail: sevia@ãàmbler.ru.
An appeal to the artwork of the writers of the Russian Far Eastern emigration is knowledge intensive and value-based in modern literary criticism. They perceived thoroughly the foreign culture which surrounded them and reflected it in their stories, novels, lyrical miniatures, travel and ethnographic essays. The article continues a series of author’s works devoted to the problems of literature of the Far East and the Russian Far East emigre literature which are historically, geographically, socially, politically, economically and daily determined by a dialogue of cultures. The object of the study is the work of a little-known emigrant writer B.M. Yulsky which is analysed in the light of cross-cultural interactions. The book of emigre prose “The Green Legion”, first published in the writer’s homeland — in Vladivostok — in 2012, is currently the only edition which includes Yulsky’s works collected on the pages of the Russian-language periodicals of China (mainly Harbinian). Using the Chinese mythopoetic image of the fox and the demonological theme, the author shows that the work of the Russian writer, who grew up in China, demonstrates a reflection of the perception of oriental and regional culture and mythology including the spiritual views of the representatives of the indigenous peoples of the Far East. Artistic representation of the traditional image of the fox is associated with the ideas about this animal, with religious beliefs, rituals and totem cults which existed in Northeast China, particularly in Manchuria, and in the Russian Far East.
Keywords: B.M. Yulsky, Green legion, Far East emigration, Far East emigre literature, cross-cultural interactions in literature, Chinese mythopoetic image of a fox, Chinese demonology.
ETHNOGRAPHY AND ARCHAEOLOGY
A.I. Tkalich. Mysterious Chuvans: historical and cultural peculiarities of the phenomenon of “Chuvans-Markovcy” in Chukotka from the nineteenth century to the beginning of the twentieth century
Aleksey Tkalich, Saint Tikhon Orthodox Humanities University, Moscow, Russia. E-mail: email@example.com.
At the core of formation of the ethnocultural phenomenon of the “Chuvans-Markovcy” on the Chukotka peninsula are the mutual useful cultural contacts with Russian Cossacks-explorers and the adoption of the Orthodox Christianity. In the first half of the seventeenth century, due to the established relations, the Russians were able to find quickly reliable allies. Taking into consideration the values of the new culture, the Chuvans rose to a higher level of the development and by the early twentieth century created unique features of their social, economic and spiritual life which distinguished them from other indigenous ethnic groups of the Far North-East. A new ethnic community with its own distinctive characteristics was created as a result of all positive processes. The Chuvans “mastered” Russian culture, switched to Russian language for communication. Nowadays, the traditional folklore of the Chuvans, their songs and dances, feasts, rituals and worldview have a strong connection with Russian Orthodox culture as well as particular features appropriate for this ethnic community. The researchers analyzed this phenomenon in the nineteenth and the twentieth centuries, several scientific works have appeared in the first decades of the twenty-first century.
Keywords: Chukotka, Russian Cossacks, indigenous ethnic groups of the Far North-East, Chuvans-Yukagirs, Chuvans-Markovcy.
V.V. Podmaskin, E.V. Fadeeva. Social organization of the Uilta of Sakhalin: the middle of the nineteenth century — the first half of the twentieth century
Vladimir Podmaskin, Institute of History, Archaeology and Ethnography of the Peoples of the Far East, FEB RAS, Vladivostok, Russia. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Elena Fadeeva, Institute of History, Archaeology and Ethnography of the Peoples of the Far East, FEB RAS, Vladivostok, Russia. E-mail: email@example.com.
Based on historical and ethnographic sources, the article is devoted to the study of the social system of the Uilta and its role in the nineteenth and the twentieth centuries. Cultural adaptation of the ethnic group to the ecological environment is of great importance. Taking into consideration ethnographic data, the authors examine the relationships of the Uilta people in the north and in the south of Sakhalin both among themselves and with the local Nivkh, the Ainu, the Evenks and the Manchu-Tungus. The authors analyze the origin of the generic name of this ethnic community. Small tribal divisions were the relics of patriarchal family communities while the tribal subdivisions consisting of small families played the main role in the system of social relations. In the tribal organization of the Uilta the lower group (the family unit) implied all or almost all functions of the patriarchal family community.
At the same time, the article touches upon a number of important controversial issues: the origin of the ethnonyms, the specific features of kinship and territorial communities, the tradition of mutual help. The question of relations and cooperation of the Uilta with Russian and Japanese inhabitants is raised. Penetration of commercial capital and market relations on the island contributed to economic stratification, the decrease in the number of reindeer farms. The Uilta were forced to engage in hunting and fishing and began to shift from the nomadic life to the settled way of life. Hunters, losing gradually the skills of taking care about the reindeers, began to slaughter them for meat during unsuccessful hunting and were left without reindeers. The industrial development of the island and the penetration of commercial capital gave an incentive to the development of economic differentiation and the destruction of ancient tribal traditions.
Keywords: tribal organization, patriarchal family, exogamy, common law, neighboring community, tribal patrons, maternal race, blood feud, social stratification, native management.
N.A. Dorofeeva, I.V. Gridasova, N.A. Klyuev, I.Yu. Sleptsov. New aspects in the study of the Zaisanovka cultural community in Primorye (based on the results of the Vodopadnoe-7 site investigation)
Natalia Dorofeeva, Institute of History, Archaeology and Ethnography of the Peoples of the Far East, FEB RAS, Vladivostok, Russia. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Irina Gridasova, Institute of History, Archaeology and Ethnography of the Peoples of the Far East, FEB RAS, Vladivostok, Russia. E-mail: email@example.com.
Nikolay Kluyev, Institute of History, Archaeology and Ethnography of the Peoples of the Far East, FEB RAS, Vladivostok, Russia. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Igor Sleptsov, Institute of History, Archaeology and Ethnography of the Peoples of the Far East, FEB RAS, Vladivostok, Russia. E-mail: email@example.com.
The article analyses the archaeological materials of the Vodopadnoe-7 site of the Late Neolithic in Primorye. According to the authors’ opinion, the collected information can become fundamental for the description of the archaeological complexes of the southeastern group of the sites of the Zaisanovka cultural community in Primorye. The experts advanced the ideas of setting apart such sites as Sopka Bolshaya, Evstafiy-4, Pod Lipamy, etc. into a separate group of sites or a local and chronological variation of the Zaisanovka culture. Vodopadnoe-7 pertains to these sites. Unfortunately, these ideas didn’t get well-reasoned grounds. One of the reasons was the absence of well-documented archaeological sources. During the excavation of the Vodopadnoe-7 site under strict stratigraphic conditions, a representative archaeological collection was obtained including earthenware, retouched, polished and knapped tools. Therein lies indubitable significance of the research on the site. This analysis allowed pointing out the basic types of ceramic ware, retouched arrowheads, polished cutting tools, hoes, etc.
According to some researchers, the analysis of earthenware collection showed a combination of features inherent in the Prikhankaisky and Khasansky local and chronological variations of the Zaisanovka culture.
As a result, the authors conclude that there was a group of sites in the Late Neolithic of Primorye with archaeological materials with similar characteristics. There is a suggestion to unite these sites into the southeastern group of the Zaisanovka cultural community.
Keywords: Primorye, Late Neolithic, South-Eastern group of Zaisanovka cultural community, Vodopadnoe-7 settlement, archaeological assemblage.
Kyujin Park, post-graduate student, Novosibirsk State University, Novosibirsk, Russia. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Maksim Stoyakin, National Research Institute of Cultural Heritage, Taejon, The Republic of Korea. E-mail: email@example.com.
A mounted pottery is a type of pottery which is common for the Russian Far East, Korea and China. It was developed in the Early Iron Age as ritual tableware. The article analyses the origin of the dou vessels in the Fenglin culture (2nd century BC — 5th century BC) — a final period of the formation of such pottery on the territory of the north-east of China. A typology of the vessels is examined in the Fenglin culture area, also the Buyeo culture (Manchuria) as well as in the Yankovsky, Krounovka and Poltse cultures located in Primorye.
The classification is based on morphological characteristics (a structure in the form of a cylinder or a cone; an upper part as a bowl, a jar or a plate; a balance of lower and upper parts) and on the structure of the puddled clay (with a big or a small amount of sand). The results show that a large number of carinated vessels of a cylindrical form made from the fine-grained puddled clay are registered among the vessels of the Buyeo culture. The main characteristics of the mounted pottery are: a short ridge of a cylindrical form on a deep upper part, puddled clay with a fine-grained structure. Thus, taking into consideration the dating of the sites of the analysed cultures and the development of the Buyeo culture in the region at the beginning of the Common Era, the researchers defined that the origin of the mounted pottery in the Fenglin culture is influenced by the Buyeo culture.
Keywords: Mounted pottery, Northeast Asia, Buyeo culture, Fenglin culture, Krounovka culture, Poltse culture.
David Brodyansky, Institute of History, Archaeology and Ethnography of the Peoples of the Far East, FEB RAS, Vladivostok, Russia.
The first archaeological culture (7th century BC — 1st century BC), which was marked out in Primorye in 1881, hasn’t been recently presented in scientific studies, and its items haven’t been of any value for the art. From the 1980s, the first publication started to appear about the findings which were classified as ancient images. These were the images of the constellations on slabs, the figures of animals, birds, fish, limnetic and people. The largest material is represented by spindle whorls. Among the ornaments one can find calendars, sundials, sea stars and sea urchins. Ancient images were found during the survey of twelve archeological sites of the Yankovskaya culture. Mobile petroglyphs were found in the Ajax Bay; in two settlements Boysman 2 and Boysman 3, in Cape Shelekh. It was often rather difficult to examine the images. It was only possible during diffused light and on digital photographs; that is why, there were mistakes in the first publications. In this study the previous inaccuracies are eliminated, repetitive images are traced, and a method of the decryption of Japanese petroglyphs is suggested for the first time. The art of the Yankovskaya culture is characterized by an advanced system of images, forms and techniques with evident south-eastern background. The direct evidences are the plate from Cape Shelekh with a Chinese natal chart, a replica of the bronze mirror from Maykhe 2, a model of a boat of a type of the Indonesian prao from the Telekovsky Bay.
Keywords: Yankovskaya archaeological culture, ancient art, mobile petroglyphs, pebbly sculpture, constellation images, ceramics drawings, spindle whorl drawings, vessel model, manuports, churingas.
V.G. Shvedov. Review of the multi-authored monograph “History of the Russian Far East. Society and power in the Russian Far East in 1960—1991”
V.G. Zelyak. Review of the monograph “Society and power in the Russian Far East in 1960—1991”
I.S. Zhushchikhovskaya. International conference for the study of the use of ceramics and metal in ancient communities