THE AMUR QUESTION IN THE CONTEXT OF THE DEVELOPMENT OF PACIFIC RUSSIA (THE MIDDLE OF THE NINETEENTH CENTURY — THE MIDDLE OF THE TWENTIETH CENTURY)
Yaroslav Barbenko, Far Eastern Federal University, Vladivostok, Russia. E-mail firstname.lastname@example.org.
The first half of the 1850s was a time of significant changes for the Amur Region when this territory gradually became part of the Russian Empire. The purpose of this study is to discover the formal reasons for the control of the territory by the Russian administration in the Amur region before the conclusion of the Treaty of Aigun (1858) with the Qing Empire on the land redistribution between the states. As a result of the research, it was found out that the active actions of the Russian side in the Amur Region had legal grounds of both international legal and internal Russian status. The most common foundations were the international legal ones: under the terms of the Treaty of Nerchinsk (1689), the Qing Empire, considering some territories of the North of Amur as its own, did not manifest and left them empty. That gave the Russian side the right to claim the territories to the East of the Ussuri. Saint-Petersburg overestimated the territorial restrictions of the Treaty of Nerchinsk and considered many territories Manchurian between the Stanovoy Range and the Amur. This mistake also gave the right to revise the traditional border with the neighboring state reflected in the maps. The internal Russian legal grounds for managing lands until 1858 included the government’s decision on the accession of many territories along the left bank and some territories along the right bank of the Amur River as well as some other decrees in 1853. Thus, the author establishes legal bases for administrative activity of the Russian authorities in the Amur Region until 1858 and also suggests considering the period of 1853—1858 as a special mode of existence of the Russian Amur Region with national grounds but no international recognition.
Keywords: Russian Empire, Qing Empire, Amur Question, Amur Region.
Nikolay Sosna, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow, Russia. E-mail: email@example.com.
Based on unpublished documents from the Russian archives and available academic publications, the author presents the first attempt to comprehensively consider the consequences of sending N.P. Ignatyev, a well-known Russian diplomat and military man, to China with a diplomatic mission in 1859—1860. The paper focuses specifically on the difficult and largely protracted implementation of the resolutions of the famous Beijing Treaty concluded by Ignatyev in 1860. The article gradually considers Russia’s main actions directed at further development of the Beijing Treaty achievements, such as establishment of a clear state border in the Far East and Central Asia, normalization of the Russian-Chinese land trade and provision of military assistance to China. The actions of the Russian diplomat aimed at the effective use of the newly acquired territories under the Beijing Treaty and ensuring sustainable connection of these remote lands with the central regions of the Russian Empire. The author comes to the conclusion that Ignatyev’s projects and his advice often became the basis of the state policy of Russia in the process of consolidation of the positive results of the Beijing Treaty, though due to a complex of objective reasons, it is hardly possible to blame anyone for some failures in the trade development and military assistance. In any case, the results achieved by Ignatyev in Beijing and his active work in St. Petersburg helped to significantly stabilize relations with China, so chaotic in the previous period.
Keywords: the Russian Empire, foreign policy, the Far East, the second opium war, the Beijing Treaty, Ignatyev, the Tarbagatai Treaty, caravan trade, the Ussuri region.
M.V. Gridyaeva. The Study of Sakhalin and the Kuril Islands as One of the Solutions of the Amur Question (the Middle of the Nineteenth Century — the Middle of the Twentieth Century)
Marina Gridyaeva, State Historical Archive of the Sakhalin Region, Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk, Russia. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
From the middle of the nineteenth century, the Far East turned into the center of fight for influence in the Pacific Rim. The solution of the Amur question inevitably created the whole complex of issues including Sakhalin and the Kuriles. One of the central places was allocated to the occupation of Sakhalin in political plans of N.N. Muravyov: together with the Amur Estuary, the island had to become a pivotal base of the Russian influence on the Pacific coast. This paper examines the activity of Russian expeditions to Sakhalin and the Kuril Islands (the middle of the nineteenth century — the middle of the twentieth century) which made the significant contribution to the study and the description of these territories and served as a basis for their further settlement. The foundation for complex scientific research of Sakhalin was initiated by the Amur expedition of 1849—1855 under the leadership of G.I. Nevelskoy. Afterwards, the island became one of actively explored regions. The development of the Kuril Islands by the Russian researchers in the first half of the eighteenth century was interrupted by the settlement of the Russian-Japanese border by the Simodsky Agreement (1855) and the Treaty of Saint Petersburg (1875). A large-scale research was revived only in 1946 when Southern Sakhalin and the Kuril Islands became a part of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic by the Decree of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR. The cooperation of many departments, organizations, societies during expeditions allowed to expand geography, subjects, to enhance the quality of research. It is known that expedition studies were conducted by the Academy of Sciences, government agencies, militaries, hydrographers, the Imperial Russian Geographical Society, by private individuals. It is concluded that the broad scope of scientific works was caused not only by the necessity of studying natural and economic conditions of the developed territories but also solving geopolitical problems of the state and strengthening its international authority. The programs of complex scientific research that had been developed during the pre-revolutionary period were implemented in Soviet colonial policy.
Keywords: expeditions, scientists, research, Sakhalin, Kuril Islands.
A.S. Zakolodnaia. The Settlement of the Far Eastern Border Territories in the 80—90s of the Nineteenth Century (a Case Study of the South Ussuri Region)
Anna Zakolodnaya, Institute of History, Archaeology and Ethnography of the Peoples of the Far East, FEB RAS, Vladivostok, Russia. E-mail: email@example.com.
The paper deals with the settlement of the border territories in the South of the Russian Far East. Particular attention is focused on the features of the preparation and realization of the sea shipping to the South Ussuri region in the 80—90s of the nineteenth century that was a response to the actions of China. It is mentioned that the sea shipping required solving a large number of problematic situations. Some of them arose due to the inconsistency of the actions of people responsible for resettlement. For example, in 1889, a number of immigrants significantly exceeded the number of seats on the ships allocated by the Voluntary fleet. Significant difficulties happened during the formation of resettlement parties. The organizers of transportation often had no opportunity to specify exact number of immigrants in advance as they could change their decision at any moment. The difficulties associated with the medical examination of immigrants as well as the provision of sanitary and hygienic conditions of transportation are shown. It is revealed that the contemporaries estimated the results of settlement ambiguously: some considered them unsatisfactory, others, on the contrary, mentioned positive changes. Nevertheless, despite some positive results (population growth, emergence of more than 60 new villages), the government realized that it was not possible to fully achieve the goals. The region continued to be sparsely populated, and food production did not meet the existing needs.
Keywords: Russian Far East, resettlement, colonization, South-Ussuri Region.
R.S. Avilov. The Organization of the Fortification Defense of the Lower Amur and the Amur Estuary before the Russo-Japanese War (1895—1904)
Roman Avilov, Institute of History, Archaeology and Ethnography of the Peoples of the Far East, FEB RAS, Vladivostok, Russia. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Basing on the unknown sources from the Russian State Military Historical Archive (RSMHA), the State Archive of the Russian Federation (SA RF) and the State Archive of the Khabarovsk Region (SAKR), this paper analyses the discussion from 1895 to 1904 about the necessary fortifications and their implementation in order to protect the Lower Amur and the Amur River Estuary. It is found out that the problem of the defense of this territory before the Russo-Japanese War of 1904—1905 has remained unexplored. After the Sino-Japanese War of 1894—1895, the security issue of the Lower Amur and the Amur River Estuary on possible penetration of the enemy ships attracted attention of the regional and central military authorities. It was decided to build coastal artillery batteries on Chnirrah and Meo capes and to create a mine defense of the Amur river. The plan had been approved in 1896, but during the realization of defensive units a fierce dispute happened between the Military District Command and War Minister A.N. Kuropatkin, who visited Nikolayevsk-on-Amur in 1903. As a result, the most important fortifications from the Minister’s point of view were not built and new guns were not delivered before the war. However, his ideas about the organization of the river defense and construction of several artillery batteries were implemented during the Soviet period.
Keywords: Russian Far East, Priamur Military District, Amur, the Russo-Japanese War of 1904—1905, A.N. Kuropatkin.
N.I. Dubinina. N.I. Grodekov on Military Events in Manchuria in 1900—1901 and Their Consequences for the Development of the Priamurye
Nina Dubinina, Moscow, Russia. E-mail: email@example.com.
Russia’s participation in the suppression of the Yihetuan Movement in China in 1900—1901 was characterized by important features. Unlike other member countries — Germany, France, Austria-Hungary, the United States and Japan — Russia had a long border with the Daitsin Empire secured by interstate treaties of the 1850s. The rebels who defeated the Chinese Eastern Railway in Northern Manchuria caused Russia not only huge material damage but also tried to deploy military operations on the Russian bank of the Amur River. They were dealt a crushing blow by the regional troops of the Amur military district under the command of General N.I. Grodekov who liberated Northern Manchuria from the rebels. Without coordination with the allies, Russia was the first to withdraw its military formations from Beijing. Based on favorable realities, General N.I. Grodekov conducted a dialogue with Emperor Nicholas II in absentia on topical issues of protecting Russia’s interests in the Far East. He proposed to move the border from the channel of the Amur river to the Manchurian coast, to create a system of protection of the Chinese Eastern Railway, to build a new railway on the Russian territory free from the influence of external factors. At the same time, he allowed negotiations with the Qing government on compensation for losses incurred by Russia. The Russian government remained faithful to its original statement that with the restoration of a strong order in Manchuria it would withdraw its troops from its borders. General of the infantry N.I. Grodekov had to restore “the lasting order” in Northern Manchuria and to ensure the withdrawal of Russian troops. For the Amur region, the victory turned into human and material losses which slowed down the pace of its development.
Keywords: Yihetuan, Northeastern Manchuria, Harbin, Chinese Eastern Railway, Blagoveshchensk, annexation.
Svetlana Beloglazova, Institute of History, Archaeology and Ethnography of the Peoples of the Far East, FEB RAS, Vladivostok, Russia. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
The paper analyzes the dynamics of the educational space of Pacific Russia and the main trends in education policy at the national and regional levels. A comparative analysis of the trends of education in the lands of the pioneer development of the Amur and Primorye regions and in the territories of the old colonization (Yakutia, Transbaikalia, the Okhotsk-Kamchatka coast and Russian America) is carried out. It is noted that in the first half of the 1850s the policy of increased administrative pressure led to stagnation in the education system in the European part of Russia as well as on the Eastern outskirts of the Empire. The liberalization of the state policy in education initiated by the government of Alexander II and the administrative and territorial reforms associated with the inclusion of the Amur region in Russia, the reorganization of the Transbaikal region and the Kamchatka Diocese gave impetus to the development of the education network in the region.
The author emphasizes that the progressive dynamics of the school network was provided by individuals and societies. The government agencies were poorly integrated into the upward trend of the educational complex of Pacific Russia. The article assesses the activities of regional leaders in the development of the education system in the region and the efforts to preserve the oldest professional schools. The author mentions that the change of the state educational policy in the second half of the 1850s aggravated the contradictions between the regional authorities and the central departments on the development of the system of vocational education. The attitude of the central departments to the region as a colony programmed its technological backwardness. In this context, the persistent struggle of the regional authorities for the preservation of vocational schools and attempts to open new ones are interpreted by the author as a vivid episode in the formation of regional consciousness.
Keywords: education, public policy, reform, general education, vocational education.
THE HISTORY OF THE FAR EAST
A.V. Maklyukov. Expeditionary Research of Energy Resources of the Amur River Basin in the 1930—1950s
Aleksey Maklyukov, Institute of History, Archaeology and Ethnography of the Peoples of the Far East, FEB RAS, Vladivostok, Russia. E-mail: email@example.com.
The article analyzes the historical experience of expeditionary research of the energy resources of the Amur River Basin in the 1930—1950s in the context of the problem of the development of productive forces in the Far East. The Amur river basin possesses different kinds of resources, and its study is of regional, state and international importance. Developed in the 1930s by the State Planning Committee of the USSR, the program for the study of Amur was aimed at solving the problems of industrialization of the Far East. As part of industry research, the first expeditions were carried out, hypotheses and projects were developed, which gave a clear picture of the possibilities for the development of the Amur energy resources. In the second half of the 1940s — the early 1950s, the energy resources of the Amur River Basin were studied within the framework of the elaboration of economic and water-related problems in the region. In the mid-1950s, there was a formalization process of the organizational structure of complex expeditionary research in the Amur basin under the leadership of the Council for the Study of Productive Forces of the USSR Academy of Sciences and the State Planning Committee of the USSR. The fruitful scientific cooperation between the USSR and the PRC made it possible to conduct the Amur complex expedition in 1955—1960 which played an important role in the scientific study of the Amur’s rich natural resources. The results of the expedition allowed developing the schemes for the integrated use of the energy resources of the Amur and its major tributaries (Zeya and Bureya), the projects for the construction of hydropower plants and the creation of the Unified Energy System of the Amur River Basin.
Keywords: expeditionary research, energy resources, hydropower, the Amur River Basin, the Russian Far East.
Bae Soyoung. Influence of Korean Workers on the Development of Gold Industry in the Primorye Province from the End of the Nineteenth Century to the Beginning of the Twentieth Century
Bae Soyoung, Chonnam National University, Gwangju, Republic of Korea. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
This paper analyzes the influence of Korean workers on the development of gold mining industry in the Primorye province from the end of the nineteenth century to the beginning of the twentieth century. Based on comprehensive historiography about the studies on mining industry in the Far East and archive materials, the essential stages of the development of gold mining industry in the Far East and the role of Korean workers in this process are explored. Korean workers were especially in demand in gold fields of mining areas in the Primorye Province. The working conditions of foreign workers and their wages are examined. Special emphasis is given to the relations between Korean workers and the workers of other nationalities, the employers and bodies of government. The policy of local authorities towards the foreign workers in gold industry is observed. The efficiency level of employment of Korean workers in gold fields and mines is analyzed according to the archive data. The author concludes that Koreans contributed to the development of gold industry in the region in this period despite inconsistent policy of local authorities towards the immigrants from the Southeast Asian Countries.
Keywords: Korean immigration, Korean workers, gold industry, economic history, Far East of Russia.
A.F. Startsev. Commercial Buildings of the Tungus-Manchurians of the Amur Region and Primorye (the Second Half of the Nineteenth Century — the Beginning of the Twenty-First Century)
Anatoliy Startsev, Institute of History, Archaeology and Ethnography of the Peoples of the Far East, FEB RAS, Vladivostok, Russia. E-mail: email@example.com.
This paper is a part of the monographic study “Hunting and Hunting Industry of the Tungus-Manchu Ethnic Groups of the Southern Part of the Russian Far East”. The article aims to describe traditional industrial and some household outbuildings such as pile barns and other constructions for the hunting activity of Negidal, Nanai, Orochi, Udege, Evens and other Tungus-Manchurian ethnic groups of Priamurye and Primorye. Residential field buildings of the aboriginal population of the southern part of the Russian Far East were used for living from one day to several months. According to the purpose and use, these buildings were temporary or permanent; with respect to the season, they were divided into winter, spring and summer-autumn constructions. In the spring, summer and autumn periods, residential industrial buildings such as aunga, yuma, khomoran, etc. were mainly used by fishermen and pickers of wild plants, and in the winter — by hunters of fur and hoofed animals. At any time of the year, temporary or permanent commercial outbuildings provided the life comfort of the aboriginal population. Household facilities were used for the storage of commercial products — fish, meat and wild plants as well as fishing and hunting equipment. The traditional aboriginal culture of the Amur region and Primorye developed over many hundreds of years in constant interaction between ethnic groups. It was passed on from generation to generation, preserved and enriched in time and space. Cultural interrelations of different Tungus-Manchurian ethnic groups were reflected in the languages and in the material and spiritual culture.
Keywords: economic trade, constructions, season, classification, dwelling, shelter, tent, winter quarters, barn, hunter.
Vadim Turaev, Institute of History, Archaeology and Ethnography of the Peoples of the Far East, FEB RAS, Vladivostok, Russia. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
The paper presents a research on socio-demographic processes of the indigenous peoples of the Far East during the Soviet period. The materials of censuses of the population of the USSR and the Russian Federation, current records of natural movement, non-demographic factors influencing the number of indigenous peoples such as migration and assimilative processes, administrative intervention, census errors are analyzed. The current demographic situation of the indigenous peoples of the Far East is determined by the following trends: an increase in the number of single-child, childless and single-parent families, increase in absolute and relative urban population, decrease in the number of marriages, etc. Attention is paid to the social processes which are typical for the region and influence population growth and decrease of the indigenous peoples of the Far East during this period. The analysis of the demographic situation in recent decades demonstrates a positive trend only for five out 18 ethnic groups: the Itelmens, Chukchi, Evenks, Evens and Yukagirs. Among the ethnic groups who have steadily decreased since 1989 are the Aleuts, Koryaks, Negidals, Orochi, Udege, Ulchi and Chuvans. The population growth of the Nanai, Nivkhs, Oroks and Tazi, which had been registered after the population census in 2002, was replaced by a decline in 2002—2010.
Keywords: indigenous peoples of the Far East, demographic processes, birth, mortality, natural increase.
Vladimir Podmaskin, Institute of History, Archaeology and Ethnography of the Peoples of the Far East, FEB RAS, Vladivostok, Russia. E-mail: email@example.com.
The paper is based on animistic theory and describes the evolution and nature of masks in the culture of the Udege, Nanai, Uilta, Orochi, Evenki, Evens, Nivkhs, Koryaks, Chukchi, Eskimo, Aleuts and Ainu. The regularities of functioning of shamanic masks which origins were associated with the representations about spirits of ancestors and mythological characters are revealed. The masks reflected the images of animals, spirits that were the owners of the area and the universe, cultural heroes. Masks and disguises were used in ancestral worship, hunting and totem rituals, medical sessions, weddings and mass folk festivals. The methods of manufacturing and wearing masks are presented. The conclusion about the connection of masks with a tattoo, an ornament and figurative writing is made. The evolution of masks in the ethnographic environment of the region showed that initially they depicted animals, then a man and finally the spirits — the owners of nature and all sorts of fantastic creatures. Metal masks-guises were used in military affairs. It turned out that animistic representations about masks and disguises among the peoples of the Pacific region characterized the period of decomposition of the tribal society associated with various images of benevolent souls, spirits and demons that contributed to the emergence of conflicts in elementary theatrical performances. During this period, a main artistic image (a shaman) appeared to animate a mask. It was believed that the soul from a sculpture could move into a person. The analysis of rites and customs, confirming the general “animation” of nature, showed the preservation of faith in the real transformation, the unity of the origin and development of the elements of the theatre regardless its local and ethnic identity. According to the latest information, a mask lost its original meaning and purpose and started to be used for fun and entertainment. Today it is a souvenir, visual symbolism of the ethnic identity, a keepsake.
Keywords: mask, maskoid, disguise, petroglyphs, Primorye, the Amur region, Chukotka, Sakhalin, Tungus-Manchus, Paleoasiatic, spirits of ancestors, shamanic masks and rituals, the bear feast, elements of theatre, souvenir.
À.S. Vashchuk. International Round Table "Russian Identity: Discussions in the Regional Space of the Far East"
I.S. Zhushchikhovskaya. International Symposium on Ancient Ceramics in Shanghai: Synthesis of Natural Sciences and Humanities
Natal’ya Potapova, Sakhalin State University, Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk, Russia. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
The period of post-Soviet transformation is one of the most significant, controversial and complicated topics in Russian history. Nowadays, the research of the contemporary period of the history of the region enters into the foreground in the Far Eastern historical studies. Source provision is one of the crucial issues because documentary sources and methods of receiving information have their peculiarities in the information age. Different historiographic aspects of the history of the Far East are analyzed in the papers of the scientists of the Institute of History, Archaeology and Ethnography of the Peoples of the Far East of the Far Eastern Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences. These scientific papers were written within the framework of the study “Post-Soviet Transformation in the Far East of Russia in Sources and Historiography” and published in the electronic scientific journal “Archont” (issue 3 (6), 2018). The attention is devoted to various aspects of socioeconomic history of the Soviet Far East that allows analyzing from the point of view of source studies and historiography and gives a chance to highlight new promising areas of research. The authors successfully solved assigned problems, reached goals employing new approaches and innovative methods of research and demonstrated high scientific potential.
Keywords: the Far East of Russia, post-Soviet transformation, restructuring, post-communism, the Institute of History, Archaeology and Ethnography of the Peoples of the Far East of the Far Eastern Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, historical sources, historiography, modernity.
ABOUT A COLLEAGUE
Å.V. Sidorenko. On the Anniversary of O.V. Dyakova