REFORMS IN THE POST-SOVIET SPACE IN THE LATE 20TH AND EARLY 21ST CENTURIES: REGIONAL ASPECT
À.S. Vashchuk. Russia’s Regions During Times of Change. Preface
E.V. Chernolutskaia. The Entry of Russian Regions into the Era of Systemic Transformations of the 1990s: Estimates of Foreign Analysts
Elena Chernolutskaya, Institute of History, Archaeology and Ethnology of the Peoples of the Far East, FEB RAS, Vladivostok. Russia. E-mail: email@example.com.
The article discusses the conditions, approaches and main results of the foreign research on the regional specificity of the initial stage of implementation of post-Soviet systemic reforms in Russia. The author draws attention to the fact that in the 1990s, foreign analysts studying this field were in a better position than Russian ones because the former had solid theoretical and methodological experience in analyzing market relations and strong material support from their governments and concerned structures. Moreover, wide openness of Russia as well as the participation of foreign researchers in strategic consulting about reforms was an important factor. As a result, the foreign historiography of this issue has accumulated a significant number of works, among which are the publications of American (A. Schleifer, R. Vishny, G. Blasi, M. Goldman, A. Vacroux, etc.) and British authors (F. Hanson, M. Bradshaw, P. Kirkov, etc.). The following aspects were mostly studied: economic regimes, transformation of branches of power, elections, privatization. The article shows the researchers’ understanding of objective and subjective factors of regional differences in the nature, speed and intensity of reforms. Special attention is paid to the assessment of the role of the regional elite in this process, the dynamics of the configuration of political forces underlying the formation of new institutions of power with an emphasis on the Far Eastern regions. In this context, a significant interest of analysts was revealed toward the Primorsky Region as an example of the authoritarian regime of the Governor’s power established in the 1990s.
Keywords: Russian regions, the Russian Far East, systemic reforms of the 1990s, foreign historiography.
E.G. Garbuzarova. Transformation of Relations between the Center and Regions in the Post-Soviet Space (Case Study of Russia and Kyrgyzstan)
Elena Garbuzarova, Kyrgyz-Russian Slavic University, Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
The article analyzes the political reforms carried out in Russia at the beginning of the twenty-first century in the context of the transformation of relations between the federal government and the regions. The problems of regions and solutions in Russia and Kyrgyzstan are considered in terms of comparing the views of scientists from these countries who study the dichotomy “center-region”. The author reveals the viewpoints on the comparative features of political processes that are manifested in the post-Soviet space under the conditions of unitary and federal states. In the 1990s, Russia tried to form democratic standards but faced the destabilization of the situation in regions and provinces, the process of decentralization, the formation of separatist tendencies and the aggravation of social and economic development of the country. One of the tasks was the transformation of relations between the center and the subjects of the Federation. The author analyzes the historical way of Russia and reveals its particularity: the combination of Russian traditions and the principles of democracy. Since the country gained independence, the tribal factor intensified in politics in Kyrgyzstan. Moreover, there was a polarization between the North and South of the country. Historical and geographical features of the organization of the Kyrgyz society set their forms and practices of formation of power structures where the principles of tribalism, nepotism and the clan system progressed. In conclusion, it is noted that the strengthening of the power vertical and the limitation of the independence of the Russian regions became the basis for overcoming economic and political problems. In Kyrgyzstan, where the accelerated development of the democratic trend was set, on the contrary, there was no strategy to strengthen relations between the center and the regions. As a result, the problems in the political and socio-economic spheres increased.
Keywords: Russia, Kyrgyzstan, political reforms, center and regions, federal reform, political system, regional policy.
E.V. Buyanov. State Reforms in the Russian Federation: Regional Aspect (Political Struggle in the Amur Region in 1991—1993)
Eugeniy Buyanov, Amur State University, Blagoveshchensk, Russia. E-mail: email@example.com.
The power and property were the main issues of the Russian state reforms in the early 90s of the twentieth century. The fragmentation of the ruling elite revealed two approaches to solving the country’s problems. A significant group of internally bourgeois nomenclature advocated the elimination of the most burdensome and hindering management system — the CPSU. Its main goal was to extend its dominant status in the new historical conditions. The privatization of state property required a change of the social order in the USSR. The conservative part of the establishment stubbornly resisted changes. The state reforms in Russia began after the events in August 1991. In the Amur region, where there was a strong influence of the left forces, a representative of the counter-elite was appointed head of the administration, which was unacceptable for the regional Council of People’s Deputies. The struggle for the removal of the head of the regional administration began. The executive leadership of the region did not expect fierce resistance to its market initiatives. As a result, the regional administration came under the control of the Regional Council. However, an attempt to counter the course of the President and the Government of the Russian Federation in the Amur Region failed. During the political crisis in Russia in late September — early October 1993, the Amur Region managed to restore presidential control over the executive power. The study is based on the documents of the State Archive of the Amur Region and memories of the key figures of the political process in the Amur Region.
Keywords: state reforms, party-state nomenclature, fragmentation of the ruling elite, Democrats, political struggle, head of administration, Council of People’s Deputies, executive and legislative authorities.
Y.N. Kovalevskaya. The “Rust Belt” of the Far East of Russia: Specifics of the Deindustrialization in 1990—2010
Yuliya Kovalevskaya, Institute of History, Archaeology and Ethnology of the Peoples of the Far East, FEB RAS, Vladivostok, Russia. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
The purpose of the article is to analyze the content and regional specifics of the deindustrialization in the Russian Far East in the first twenty post-Soviet years. The concept of the “rust belt” allows using the possibilities of comparative studies to take a fresh look at the Far Eastern transformation crisis. Except the relatively low starting base, the deindustrialization of the Far Eastern Federal District in 1990—2010 meets all main criteria known for the US “rust belt” and “old industrial areas” of Europe, and its parameters are in the same quantitative range. The volume of industrial production in the Far Eastern Federal District reached its lowest point in 1998 — 43.3%, and even in the pre-crisis 2008 it was only 66.6% of the level in 1990. The share of manufacturing in GRP decreased by more than 2.5 times and amounted to only 5.6% over the same period. Unemployment and worsening living conditions created a massive outflow of the population. On the whole, the Far Eastern Federal District lost 22.1% of the population, from 13% in the Primorsky Region to 68% in the Chukotka Autonomous Region. “Compression” affected 90% of the Far Eastern cities where 5% to 50% of citizens left. The difficulty of leaving the Far East, given the high transport costs and the difference in the price of housing, contributed to the concentration of a poor and socially unprotected population in the cities, degradation of the urban environment, that is, ghettoization of settlements.
Keywords: Far East of Russia, deindustrialization, “rust belt”, “shrinking cities”, ghettoization.
Park Hyun-Gwi. Migration of Koreans from Central Asia to the Primorye Region under Conditions of Post-Soviet Changes: Motives, Flows, Adaptation Practices
Park Hyun-Gwi, Kyung Hee University, Seoul, Republic of Korea. E-mail: email@example.com
The collapse of the USSR and radical systemic reforms in the post-Soviet states led to a sharp change in the nature of migrations between them. The author analyses the move of the Korean people from Central Asia to the Primorye Region in terms of the directions and volume of migration flows, motivation and adaptation practices of the migrants in the new settlements. It is revealed that this process increased dramatically in the 1990s mainly due to the rise of autochthonous nationalism and the outbreak of the civil war in Central Asia. The author believes that the term “ethnic migration”, which is often used for defining migration flows during the post-Soviet transition period, is a more heterogenous and complex phenomenon which is influenced by a combination of factors. This article shows that the notion “ethnic” is a surface characteristic of the migration based on kinship relations. Nevertheless, kinship relations did not work as a unitary principle when Koreans decided to migrate but entangled with other various social and economic factors, especially, with the change of citizenship law in Russia in 2002. In particular, this article describes the dynamic formation of different social groups among Koreans depending on the time of their repatriation to the Russian Far East.
Keywords: post-socialism, Primorye Region, migration, Russian Koreans, post-Soviet citizenship.
Mayu Michigami. Problems of Rental Housing and Living Conditions of Foreign Labour Migrants in Russian Cities (the 2010s)
Mayu Michigami, Niigata State University, Niigata, Japan. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
The core of the post-Soviet reforms in the housing sector was privatization, and, as a result, the main part of housing passed into private ownership in Russia. However, sale and purchase transactions are made in the emerged housing market, while the proportion of rental leases is small and is largely carried out not through commercial structures but through individuals and is hidden in the “shadow” sector. The article deals with the specifics of conditions of housing rent by foreign labour migrants from individuals, which is one of the important aspects of the study of the Russian real estate market. This study is based on the results of the original sociological survey of 1003 labour migrants conducted by the author in 25 Russian cities in 2017 and 2018. This survey is unique in the quantitative coverage of respondents (1003) and cities (25). In addition, the paper contains exclusive information about the real accommodation conditions of labour immigrants in Russia. The survey results of some cities of the Russian Far East are particularly presented: Vladivostok, Khabarovsk, Ussuriysk, Partizansk, and Dalnerechensk. The focused labour migrants are mainly from Ukraine, Central Asia, Belarus, Caucasian regions; therefore, the questionnaire survey was conducted in Russian language. The following issues are analysed: real housing problems of labour migrants, their living standards and real estate transactions, existence or lack of inequality by region, job and nationalities among immigrants, the policy of solving immigrants’ housing problems and its significance.
Keywords: housing problem, utilities, immigrant labour, inequality, housing market, Russia.
HISTORY, INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS
Larisa Garusova, Far Eastern Federal University, Institute of History, Archaeology and Ethnology of the Peoples of the Far East, FEB RAS, Vladivostok, Russia. E-mail: email@example.com.
The article discusses the main trends in the development of the immigration system of the United States for more than two hundred years of the country’s history. Despite the complexity and chronological prolongation of the immigration strategy of the United States, it is based on Immigration Act. It reflects the transformation of the social, economic and humanitarian needs of American society. The analysis of legislation, policy declarations, immigration projects, other original sources and literature identified two main stages of immigration policy and their key characteristics. It is determined that the factor of illegal migration is the backbone for both stages. The first stage, which lasted from the end of the 18th to the middle of the 20th century, is characterized by the formation of immigration legislation as a set of prohibitive and restrictive measures aimed at stimulating and regulating migration processes and preventing undesirable elements and social groups in the United States. The increased economic and humanitarian needs of American society in the second half of the twentieth century led to a reduction of immigration laws and an increase in migration flows. The second stage of the immigration strategy (from the second half of the twentieth century to the present time) is characterized by the attempts to bring migration in line with the needs of the economy and the aggravation of the problems of legal immigration. The analysis of modern immigration policy under president Trump allows predicting its further tightening, which is associated with the transformation of illegal immigration into a threat to US national security and the decrease in the need of the labor force by the American labor market.
Keywords: immigration, USA, discrimination, immigration law, illegal migrants, border control, comprehensive immigration reform.
Yu.S. Pestushko. Foreign Policy of Japan in 1894—1907: On the Way of Transformation into a Continental State
Yuriy Pestushko, Pacific National University, Khabarovsk, Russia. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
The following article is devoted to the analysis of the Japan’s foreign policy at the turn of the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. Basing on the scientific works in Russian and English as well as the historical documents, the author analyses the process of involving Japan into the regional international relations in the second half of the nineteenth century, the formation of the Japanese maritime and continental policy, the activities of the Japanese government aimed at turning the country into a full-fledged subject of international relations in the Asia-Pacific region (annexation of the Ryukyu Islands, Formosa (Taiwan), Pescadores Islands). The article describes that from the moment Japan was included in the international relations, the goal of the Japanese foreign policy was to turn the country into a strong power as well as to achieve the status of a regional leader. The Triple Intervention of Russia, France and Germany in the terms of the Treaty of Shimonoseki, organized by St. Petersburg, brought disagreement between Japan and Russia on the issue of dominance in Manchuria and Korea to a new level, making military conflict between the two countries inevitable. The paper analyzes the activities of the Japanese government to increase and modernize the armed forces carried out during 1881—1913. It is concluded that Japan’s entry into the leading world powers as a result of the Russo-Japanese War and the expansion of the spheres of influence on the continent led to increased competition between Japan on the one hand and the United States and Great Britain on the other hand.
Keywords: Japan, China, Korea, Russia, Japan’s continental policy, Shimonoseki Peace Treaty, Triple Intervention, Russo-Japanese War, Anglo-Japanese Alliance, armed forces, spheres of interest.
I.A. Gudkov. The Khabarovsk Region in the Trade and Economic Cooperation between the USSR and Northeast China (1953—1966)
Il’ya Gudkov, Far Eastern Federal University, Vladivostok, Russia. E-mail: email@example.com.
This article is devoted to one of the most important periods in relations between Russia and China — the short-term rapprochement in 1950—1960 when the mutually beneficial trade, economic, scientific and technical cooperation between two states gained a wide scale. The aim of this work is to consider the nature and forms of the trade and economic interaction between the Soviet Union and the People’s Republic of China on the example of the border regions of the Far East: the Khabarovsk Region and Northeast China in 1953—1966 in order to establish its volumes, features and difficulties. Basing on archival documents, the author gives a general description of the indicated stage of the Soviet-Chinese cooperation in the field of economics both at the national and regional levels: the contribution of the Soviet Union to the industrialization of Northeast China and the role of the Russian Far East in this process are highlighted. Much attention is paid to the peculiarities of the interaction between two border regions. The author emphasizes a number of differences between the stages of the trade and economic cooperation on the Far Eastern border in the twentieth century, reveals the heterogeneity of forms of trade relations in the above-mentioned period, the difficulties and the role of state policy. The article reveals the main causes of the rupture of economic relations between these two states in the second half of the1960s and the impact of this process on cross-border trade cooperation.
Keywords: Far East, Northeast China, Khabarovsk Region, cross-border trade, cooperation.
E.V. Drobotushenko, Y.N. Lantsova. The Activity of the Committee on the Protection of the Rights and Russian Interests in Shanghai
Evgeniy Drobotushenko, Transbaikal State University, Chita, Russia. E-mail: DRZZ@yandex.ru.
Yuliya Lantsova, Transbaikal State University, Chita, Russia. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
The article is devoted to the analysis of little-known aspects of the existence and activity of the Committee on the Protection of the Rights and Russian Interests in Shanghai in the middle of the third decade of the twentieth century. The authors give a review on the topic, and it is noted that nowadays there are various studies on the history of the Russian emigration in China in general and in Shanghai in particular. However, not all aspects have been equally researched. Thus, the history of the Committee on the Protection of the Rights and Russian Interests in Shanghai hasn’t been completely recreated. The study is based on the documents from the funds of the State Archive of the Russian Federation (SARF), primarily on the case of “Information on Russian emigrant unions and societies in China. Information on the members of the board of the Cossack Union in Shanghai”, which made it possible to focus on the controversial question of the start of the Committee. It was concluded that the Committee on the Protection of the Rights and Russian Interests in Shanghai worked very actively in the middle of the third decade of the twentieth century, which was in particular determined by the new structure. However, there were constant difficulties, and poor financial situation was the main one. The emigrant community as well as its individual institutions were constantly short of money. Moreover, internal contradictions among its members tore the organization apart. The authors come to a conclusion that further analysis of materials is required.
Keywords: Russian emigration, Cossacks, public organizations, Committee on the protection of the rights and Russian interests, China, Shanghai.
P.A. Lapin. Teaching Russian in the Heilongjiang Province at the End of the Nineteenth Century — at the Beginning of the Twentieth Century
Pavel Lapin, Russian Embassy in China, Beijing, PRC. E-mail: email@example.com.
Teaching Russian during the late Qing Dynasty was organized in accordance with the needs of Chinese authorities to establish contacts with Russia. The situation in the Heilongjiang Province, which was a part of the region of Manchuria during the Qing dynasty, was very typical. The Heilongjiang Province had a long common border with Russia, and local authorities maintained contacts with Russian border representatives. Taking into consideration the particular political situation, Russia had direct control on this province as well as entire Manchuria from 1900 to 1906. These objective reasons led to the necessity of teaching the Russian language to Chinese specialists. Our authorities provided possible assistance to the Heilongjiang officials in teaching the Russian language. Russian representatives had a quite beneficial situation: Russian language schools were organized by the Chinese government that disburdened our representatives from superfluous financial and administrative load. At the same time, the Russian side sent teachers from Russia to teach in these schools and provided them with school books. So, with an efficient approach the educational process could have been conducted in the desired direction for Russia. The Heilongjiang executives were the first who began to send local students to study in Russia. They achieved success as, in comparison to other provinces, the maximum number of students were sent to the best universities of the Russian capital in a short time. However, the history of the studies of the Russian language in the Heilongjiang Province during the late Qing Dynasty was quite short. In spite of the fact that this region had a common border with Russia, teaching Russian was stopped in the 1910s due to the active policy of Japan and the unstable political situation in Manchuria.
Keywords: Qing Empire, Manchuria, Heilongjiang province, Russian language in China, Russian language teaching, humanitarian ties.
ETHNOGRAPHY AND ETHNOLOGY
E.V. Glebova. Fish Skin as a Symbol of Ethnic Culture and Identity of the Indigenous Peoples of the Lower Amur
Elena Glebova, Theater Union of the Russian Federation, Moscow, Russia; Khabarovsk Regional Non-Governmental Charitable Cultural Foundation, Khabarovsk, Russia. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
The article examines the process of revival of one of the most important activities in the traditional culture of the indigenous peoples of the Lower Amur — the process technology of fish skin. A special fishing culture in the Lower Amur River was formed under the influence of natural and climatic conditions as well as the result of continued ethnocultural process. Technologies of processing and use of leather of different fish species were a part of the fishing culture. For a long historical period during the development of the Amur River Region by Russian settlers, the skin fish was the basis for the manufacture of clothing, shoes, household items, but during Soviet transformations the ancient knowledge lost its relevance, the process of its transfer from one generation to another was interrupted. In the late 1990s and early 2000s, the revival of many ethnic traditions started in the Khabarovsk Region. One of them was the use of fish skin. These products lost their practical value, and nowadays they are a symbol of ancient handicraft and the ethnic identity of the indigenous peoples of the Lower Amur. The goods from fish skin are of great interest at forums, exhibitions, museums and have become the brand of the Khabarovsk Region and the indigenous peoples. The author analyzes the mechanism of formation of positive ethnic identity of modern Nanais, Ulchi, Nivkhs and the activities of the enthusiasts, the Regional Association of the Indigenous Peoples of the North, regional museums and education institutions. The study is based on the historiographic sources from the end of the 19th century to the beginning of the 20th century, the field materials collected in national villages of the Khabarovsk Region (2009—2013), the materials of exhibitions and forums in Khabarovsk, Moscow, Norway (2012—2018).
Keywords: indigenous peoples, the Lower Amur, fish skin, traditional technology, revival of traditional culture, ethnic identity.
Dmitriy Makoveev, Institute of History, Archaeology and Ethnology of the Peoples of the Far East, FEB RAS, Vladivostok, Russia. E-mail: email@example.com.
Researchers who analyzed weapons of the Jurchen people paid much attention to arrow tips because they are the most common objects of Jurchen weapon items. For a complete study of the Jurchen long-distance weapons complex, it is important not only to examine their tips but also to restore all parameters of the Jurchen arrows. In order to do that, a minimum set of source data is required: the length and mass of the tip, the length, thickness and density of the shaft material, information about tail feathers and end shanks. Having a set of necessary parameters, the researcher is able to accurately reconstruct the dimensions of the arrow but defining these parameters for the Jurchen arrows is difficult. Until now, during the archaeological excavations of the Jurchen sites, arrows or their remains have not been found. Such aspects as the method of attaching the tip to the shaft, tail feathers, devices for holding the arrow on the string have remained unexplored. The purpose of this article is to compile information about the Jurchen arrows and to make their hypothetical reconstruction. The complete solution of this issue is impossible in one work, but the research has made it possible to partially recreate the lost elements and to restore the appearance of the Jurchen arrow.
Keywords: Jurchen, arrows, tips, shafts, tail feathers, end shanks.
L.A. Slabnina. Life in a Disaster: the Book by T.Z. Poznyak “Everyday Life of Vladivostok from the First World War to the Civil War (1914—1922): Historical Essays”