THE 75TH ANNIVERSARY OF THE GREAT VICTORY
Galina Tkacheva, Institute of History, Archaeology and Ethnology of the Peoples of the Far East, FEB RAS, Vladivostok, Russia. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
On the basis of a large number of sources, the paper analyses the activities of the enterprises of the military industrial complex, agriculture and the transport system, population growth and composition, the reality of daily life of the Far Eastern society and its readiness to ensure safety of east boundaries of the USSR. It is revealed that the Far Eastern region took part in mobilization processes of transformation of the Soviet society under pressure of the geopolitical situation carrying out defensive (maintenance of combat readiness of the Far Eastern Front, the Pacific Fleet and the Red Banner Amur Military Flotilla), foreign economic and foreign policy (the cooperation of the USSR with the countries of the anti-Hitler coalition) tasks. The development of new types of military products changed the economic relations between the enterprises of different departmental subordination, demanded improvement of work organization, changes in technologies and equipment, expansion of secondary production departments (often at the same locations) with a minimum use of the centralized raw materials supply, materials and semi-finished products with a focus on own opportunities and maximum simplification of product design. The forced involvement of resources from the eastern territories of the country led to their uneven and lop-sided social and economic development that strengthened the differentiation between separate administrative units of the region. The population change, placement and structure of labour and mobilization resources happened in line with political, demographic, social and economic processes of wartime. The priority realization of state interests, the appeal to national and patriotic traditions caused moral and psychological as well as social and economic stability of the Far Eastern society. Strengthening the Far East of the USSR corresponded to fundamental principles of the Soviet military doctrine defining the deployment of military forces during the Great Patriotic War.
Keywords: Great Patriotic War, Far East, safety, mobilization economy, population, welfare reality, armed forces.
L.I. Gallyamova. The Soviet Far East during the Great Patriotic War in Modern Regional Historiography
Lyudmila Gallyamova, Institute of History, Archaeology and Ethnology of the Peoples of the Far East, FEB RAS, Vladivostok, Russia. E-mail: email@example.com.
Seven and a half decades have passed since the banner of Victory flew over the Reichstag. During this time, thousands of books have been published about the war: overviews, monographs, historical essays, collections of scientific papers, memoirs and diaries, chronicles, etc. The vast historiography of the Great Patriotic War is constantly updated with new materials, but it is quite natural that the scientific study of the history of this greatest and the most difficult war will continue since many of its issues have not been investigated and questions have not been answered yet. On the eve of the anniversary of the Victory, the relevance of this topic has intensified in connection with the hostile attempts of researchers to misrepresent historical facts, to attack the historical consciousness of not only the Russian people but of the people from the entire former Soviet Union and other countries. A lot of hard work on the history of war is also done in the Far East. The purpose of this paper is to determine the main topics of research on the history of the Far East during the period of 1941—1945 and to evaluate the results of the studies for the last two decades. The analysis shows that the topic concerning the Great Patriotic War of the USSR occupies one of the main places in terms of its significance and relevance in modern Far Eastern historiography. It is stated that traditional research topics have remained the focus of attention among historians: economy, transport, interaction between the military front and home front, participation of the people of the Far East in battles and combats, culture. At the same time, due to the declassification of archives, new or poorly studied topics have become more relevant: the lend-lease, the defense and economic potential of the Far East, the organization of border and customs control, the functioning of the system of security and law enforcement agencies, the problem of the Gulag and forced migrations, the Far Eastern society throughout the war.
Keywords: the Great Patriotic War, the USSR, the Far East, modern historiography.
O.I. Sergeev. The Resettlement of the Don Cossacks to the Far East In the Documents from the State Archive of the Rostov Region
Oleg Sergeev, Institute of History, Archaeology and Ethnology of the Peoples of the Far East, FEB RAS, Vladivostok, Russia. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
The paper is devoted to the relocation of the Don Cossacks to the Far East. This process is analyzed on the basis of the materials from the exit point of the Don Cossacks, which were recorded in the State Archive of the Rostov Region. Such resettlement from the European troops happened at the final stage, from the end of the nineteenth century to the beginning of the twentieth century, and was connected with the construction of the Trans-Siberian Railway, its Ussuri section where the territory needed to be protected. Many documents from the Rostov Archive are devoted to the characteristics of the Cossack families sent to the Far East: their number, material well-being, the causes of difficulties in the implementation of the main activity (agriculture, cattle breeding, fishing, etc.) mostly associated with a shortage of allotment land and depletion of fishing resources in Azov. Special attention is paid to the description and regulation of the Cossacks’ route: first, by land to Odessa, then, by sea to Vladivostok. Some documents give an idea about the role of walkers sent to the places of settlement in order to select suitable territories for living. Most revealed documents introduce various types of correspondence, primarily with the governing bodies of the Cossack administration system including the Ñenter and the authorities of the Don Army and the Amur Cossack troops. The questions about resettlement, negative aspects and requests for solutions are of great importance. Special emphasis is given to the important role of the Cossack resettlement from the Don for further economic development of the Far Eastern Region and significant strengthening of its defense potential.
Keywords: Cossacks, the Don Army, archival materials, resettlement to the Far East.
A.D. Vasilev. Problems of the Pacific Coast Supply and Solutions by Yakut Regional Authorities (the First Half of the Nineteenth Century)
Aysen Vasilev, Institute for Humanities Research and Indigenous Studies of the North, SB RAS, Yakutsk, Russia. E-mail: email@example.com.
For the first time, the paper examines the activities of Yakut regional authorities to provide the supply to Okhotsk — the main port of the Russian Empire located in the Pacific Ocean in the first half of the nineteenth century. The Yakutsk Region, due to its geographical position, was an important region in Czarist Russia. State freight was transported through its territory to remote locations in the north-eastern part of the empire, primarily to the Okhotsk Region. The head of the Yakutsk Region, as the “owner” of the entrusted region, was responsible for the organization of the freight transportation and supplying Okhotsk with it. The long, exhausting and difficult transportation along the Okhotsk tract created numerous problems in supply to the Okhotsk Region. The route complexity and unsatisfactory condition of roads led to the massive death of pack horses that negatively reflected on the welfare of the indigenous peoples of Yakutia, situation with the outlying areas of the empire and the tsar’s treasury. Under the conditions of the Far North and the inconvenience of movement along the existing single route, the Yakutsk regional authorities took the following measures to accelerate the delivery of state-owned goods: volume contraction of goods in the summer in favor of the spring, organization of settlements along the Okhotsk tract, fight against epizootics, etc. It can be concluded that there was some liberalization in the attitude of tsarist power towards the indigenous peoples of Yakutia.
Keywords: supply, cargo transportation, the Okhotsk tract, Okhotsk, the Okhotsk port, the Pacific coast, regional head, the Yakutsk Region.
Tatiana Poznyak, Institute of History, Archaeology and Ethnography, FEB RAS, Vladivostok, Russia. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
This paper is devoted to the development of a new state — the Far Eastern Republic. The aim of the research is to analyze the problems which occurred during the organization of local regional, district, volost authorities. The main source of the study was the reports of the regional administrations, government emissaries, who visited the Far Eastern Republic, and the minutes of regional popular assemblies from 1921 to 1922. The entry of the territories into the Far Eastern Republic (FER), which was declared on April 6, 1920, was not an instantaneous act but a long-time process. The entire vertical power of the new republic — from the government to the regional, district, volost and rural authorities — was formed only in the summer and autumn of 1922. However, the subordination of the district and volost authorities to the regions was nominal. The government and regional administrations controlled only cities while the rural areas were independent republics. Labor artels ran the mines. It is concluded that the organization and work of local authorities were complicated due to the war, the mobilization of all resources for the maintenance of the army, the severe financial and economic crisis, permanent reforms, the slow development of the regulatory framework by the government, the lack of personnel, the destruction of communications and data communication with rural areas, military arbitrariness and “separatism” of the ministries. The lack of money was the most painful issue for the authorities in the Far Eastern Republic. Higher authorities sought to shift the care about the needs of people to local administration but simultaneously demanded the collected taxes. Such inequality of rights and duties caused discontent of lower authorities.
Keywords: Far Eastern Republic, people’s revolutionary committees, regional administrations, personnel, finance, reforms, buffer state, Russian Civil War.
Natalya Belyaeva, Far Eastern Federal University, Vladivostok, Russia. E-mail: email@example.com
The main issue of the article is the process of establishing of the Far Eastern Customs and its Customs Payment Department. This work is based on the studies of the Customs office work documents preserved in the funds of the Russian State Historical Archive of the Far East. Biographical information about the heads of the Department is given. The difficulties of solving the personnel problem are shown. The information on the organizational structure of the Customs Department of the Russian Far East, consisting of the Customs Authority, Customs inspection zones, local Customs, Customs enforcement border posts, Customs control posts has been clarified. Attention is drawn to the problem of continuity in the work of the Department of Customs Payment of the Government A.V. Kolchak and the Department of Customs Payment of the Far Eastern Republic. The influence of the experience of Customs vertical management organizing by Soviet Russia on organizing the Customs service of the Far Eastern Republic, taking into account the specifics of the “buffer state” in the circumstances of the economic union of the two republics is analyzed. The law base for the functioning of the Customs service is described. This study explains the changes in the departmental subordination of the Customs Payment Department that occurred during 1920—1921. The main directions in the work of the Department such as the restoration of customs infrastructure, streamlining customs duties, development of the basics of customs policy, the creation of a customs apparatus to solve the most important economic problems are covered by the study. The proposals for further study of the history of Customs and customs policy of the Far Eastern Republic are given in the article.
Keywords: Civil War, Far Eastern Republic, Customs, Customs Payment Department.
A.A. Khisamutdinov, Chi Yuchao. Professor Mstislav Golovachev — Political Scientist, Lawyer, Teacher
Amir Khisamutdinov, Far Eastern Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Far Eastern Federal University, Vladivostok, Russia. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Chi Yuchao, Far Eastern Federal University, Vladivostok, Russia. E-mail: email@example.com.
The paper is dedicated to lawyer, professor of political science and political figure (Siberian regionalist) Mstislav Petrovich Golovachev (1891—1956), who taught international relations at Siberian universities and was one of the founders of the Far Eastern State University (State Far Eastern University / Far Eastern State University — FESU, Far Eastern Federal University — FEFU). At that time, among the first professors were famous lawyers and scholars who stayed in the Far East during the Civil War. They founded a unique school of law which also provided knowledge of foreign languages, geography and politics of the Asia-Pacific countries taking into consideration the peculiarities of this region. M.P. Golovachev was a member of the examination committee for the first lawyers. He actively participated in many White governments as Minister of Foreign Affairs or Head of the Departments of International Relations. After his emigration to China, M.P. Golovachev played a major role in Russian emigrant organizations, was Professor at the Institute of Oriental and Commercial Sciences, founded and became the First Rector of the St. Vladimir Institute in Harbin. The Japanese authorities deported M.P. Golovachev from Harbin due to his political activity. He continued his pedagogical, social and journalistic work first in Shanghai, where he became a prominent figure in the Russian community, and then in the United States, where he spent his last years. All his life M.P. Golovachev was engaged in political science publishing reviews and analytical papers in various emigrant periodicals. This paper is based on the materials from foreign archives and libraries of the USA and China and is dedicated to the 100th anniversary of legal university education in the Russian Far East.
Keywords: M.P. Golovachev / Golovacheff (1891—1956), State Far Eastern University, Far Eastern State University, Far Eastern Federal University, Russians in China, the Civil War in the Far East, Far Eastern jurisprudence, political science, Siberian regionalists.
Aleksandr Zhadan, Vladivostok branch of Far Eastern Law Institute of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of Russia, Vladivostok, Russia. Å-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
The paper analyzes the activities of the NKVD of the Far East on combating theft of goods on the railway during the military period of 1941—1945. The author notes the strategic importance of the safe functioning of the rail transport in the region taking into account the need to transport goods which arrived under lend-lease by the Pacific route to the USSR. The following reasons caused the increase in the number of encroachments on rail freight: an overall difficult socio-economic situation, shortcomings in the activities of the NKVD and the administration of the railways. On the basis of archival regulatory documents, the measures undertaken by the NKVD during the war in order to counter illegal encroachments on goods are analyzed. The author comes to the conclusion that during the period of 1941—1945 the work of the railway police of the Far East on the protection of goods was complicated by the general deterioration of the criminological situation in the country, the increase in the volume of valuable goods transported in the region, the lack of qualified workers, the expansion of the range of performed tasks and other factors caused by the military situation. The main efforts of the railway police to fight against theft of goods were focused on the formation of a specialized agent network at railway transport facilities, improvement of the control regime, the system of watchman and guard service, expansion of interaction with territorial bodies of the NKVD, operational-Chekist departments of correctional labor institutions and population.
Keywords: Great Patriotic War, NKVD, Far East, theft of goods, railway, fight against crime.
Oksana Fedirko, Institute of History, Archaeology and Ethnology of the Peoples of the Far East, FEB RAS, Vladivostok, Russia. E-mail: email@example.com.
The paper is devoted to the phenomenon of religious revitalization in the post-Soviet Far East of Russia which, due to a whole range of factors, significantly changed the confessional landscape of the region. Two approaches to the interpretation of religious revitalization in Russia are analyzed: religion as a social institution responding to challenges from the outside and as an independent, self-reviving phenomenon. The following main factors can be distinguished: dynamically changing legislation in the field of state-confessional relations, the use of the “religious issue” by political parties and movements in the struggle for the electorate, vigorous activity of foreign missionaries aiming to help already existing Far Eastern religious associations and to disseminate new teachings that are not traditional for the region, etc. The author points out that in the situation of ideological vacuum, which was a result of the collapse of Soviet ideology, the religious tradition proved to be in demand by the Far Eastern society just as a way to preserve cultural and historical continuity. The people of the Far East accepted religion as a new ideology (civil identity), and, as a result, there was a natural conversion of some citizens to religion in the 1990s. During this period, a peculiar situation occurred among the inhabitants of the Far East who declared religiosity: confession and personal religiosity were not interchangeable.
Keywords: religion, Far East, revitalization, society, missionary work, politics, identity.
Irina Pantyukhina, Institute of History, Archaeology and Ethnography of the Peoples of the Far East, FEB RAS, Vladivostok, Russia. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Yuri Vostretsov, Institute of History, Archaeology and Ethnography of the Peoples of the Far East, FEB RAS, Vladivostok, Russia. E-mail: email@example.com.
The paper describes the current situation in Russian archaeology in connection with the promotion of interdisciplinary research in the ecological paradigm, approaches and methods for reconstructing the life-support systems and paleodiet of the ancient population. Two main approaches to paleodiet reconstruction are examined. The first one involves direct empirical calculations on ecofacts that reflect the various components of the paleodiet. It is suitable for limited types of deposits with good preservation, mainly shell mounds. It is stated that there are contradictions in modern implementations of empirical calculations for the reconstruction of life-support systems and paleodiet models when the carbohydrate component “escapes” from the attention of researchers. One of the proposed productive technics for overcoming the contradiction is a research method of ancient starch on tools and ceramics. This method has informative capabilities and prospects for its application. The second approach is based on methods for studying chemical markers of using certain food sources. These markers can be found in bones, teeth, other body tissues and ceramics. The authors analyze in detail the conditions, information capabilities and limitations of the use of each of the methods and their combination for the most complete reconstruction of the life-support system and the paleodiet. A critical review of the results from various approaches and methods of the paleodiet analysis in regional archeology is also carried out. The integrated approaches and methods for a more complete reconstruction of the life-support systems and paleodiet are proposed.
Keywords: human behavioral ecology, archeology, paleodiet reconstruction methods, research method of ancient starch, isotope analysis.
Vladimir Podmaskin, Institute of History, Archaeology and Ethnology of the Peoples of the Far East, FEB RAS, Vladivostok, Russia. Å-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Roman Gvozdev, Institute of History, Archaeology and Ethnology of the Peoples of the Far East, FEB RAS, Vladivostok, Russia. Å-mail: email@example.com.
The paper discusses the formation of ethnonyms of the Sakhalin Uilta from the middle of the nineteenth century to the beginning of the twenty-first century. The Manchu-Tungus community of the island had several self-designations that created confusion and made it difficult to determine the authentic native name for the emerging ethnic group. Probably, in the middle of the nineteenth century, when the Russians met the Oroks who lived on Sakhalin, they did not have an identical name. They had a system of interrelated ethnonyms, which consisted of several names: the names could be given them by neighbors or they could be just names of neighbors. Sometimes they called themselves Nani as they belonged to the peoples of the mainland, with whom they had close kinship and historical and cultural relations. Therefore, the terms Uilta, Orok, Oroqens, remaining in ethnic identity, didn’t become indicators of finally formed ethnic self-designation. As an independent category, the self-designation manifested in the long-lost ethnonym Nani semantically related to the word “man”, “people”, which was typical for the peoples of the Lower Amur and Sakhalin in the past. Probably, the authentic origin of the ethnic self-name Nani should be attributed to the earliest layer of ethnogenesis, the era of decomposition of the primitive society, which marked the transition from tribal relations to territorial relations.
Keywords: Uilta, Oroks, Oroqens, Tazy, Nani, dynamics, self-name, self-awareness, Lower Amur, Sakhalin.
Anatoliy Startsev, Institute of History, Archaeology and Ethnology of the Peoples of the Far East, FEB RAS, Vladivostok, Russia. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
The problems of ethnogenesis and ethnic history of the Sakhalin Oroks have been studied by many domestic and foreign researchers. In their works, more than twenty ethnonyms are distinguished: Ol’cha, Ul’cha, Uil’ta, Ul’ta, Ujl’ta, etc. Most researchers believe that the etymology of these names is reflected in the word ula. This word means “domestic deer”, and the ethnic names of the Oroks are translated into Russian as “reindeer herders”. Furthermore, modern Russian ethnographers started to equate numerous names with one word without taking into consideration the theory of ethnos which explains that each nation, in addition to the main self-name (endoethnonym), can have several more territorial names typical for different ethnographic groups. The ethnographers of the Post-Soviet period began to unite the ethnonyms Ul’ta ~ Uilta ~ Ujl’ta with a tilde and gave preference to the name Ujl’ta considering it an original ethnonym of the Sakhalin Oroks. The author of this work believes that the numerous names of the Sakhalin Oroks in the form of Ulta, Uilta and Ujlta cannot be reduced to one variant because these are different territorial names of ethnographic groups that designate the territory where previously the ancestors of the Oroks lived. Besides, the study analyses the point of view of the researchers who continue to use the term Ujlta instead of the generally accepted name Uilta. It is expected that the final solution will be found by a new generation of researchers and throughout significant scientific discussions.
Keywords: problem, concept, ethnogenesis, Oroks, ethnonyms, reindeer herders, territorial names, domestic and international researchers.
Vladimir Shavkunov, Institute of History, Archaeology and Ethnology of the Peoples of the Far East, FEB RAS, Vladivostok Russia. E-mail: email@example.com.
The paper examines the bronze tag which was found in the Partizansky District of the Primorye Region. It had an inscription in Chinese stating that it was issued to Tsitusya, the representative of the Teli tribe in the year 795. The similar findings haven’t been known. Nowadays, the researchers have got controversial ideas about what territories the Teli occupied during the Bohai period. The analysis of annalistic and archaeological material shows that the Teli tribe could not have lived in the area where the tag was found, i.e. in the south-east of the Primorye Region. The most likely location of the Teli tribe is the western and north-western suburbs of lake Khanka. The motto of the reign of one of the emperors of the Tang dynasty is engraved on this tag. All known Tang tags differ from this one by form and lack of the date. It is assumed that the tag is of the Bohai origin because the chronicles indicate the reduction of the influence of the Tang dynasty on the north-eastern tribes and their switch to the Bohai Kingdom. The Kings of Bohai used the same time-proved scheme in order to conquer the neighboring tribes. First, tribal leaders were given titles and posts, and then various administrative units were set up on their territories. So, the Telifu region with six districts was established on the Teli territory. Perhaps, Tsitusya, who was mentioned on the tag, became the first head of the Telifu or one of its districts.
Keywords: tag, Bohai, the Teli tribe, the Tang Dynasty, the Partizansky District of the Primorye Region, the Smolninskaya culture.
Boris Afonin, Institute of History, Archaeology and Ethnology of the Peoples of the Far East, FEB RAS, Vladivostok, Russia. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
This paper provides an information analysis of the social and political situation in Japan over the past 2019 which was full of important events. One of the events was the change of the emperor due to Emperor Akihito’s voluntary abdication and accession of Crown Prince Naruhito to the throne. With the change of the emperor, the era of the imperial reign changed its name: instead of the Heisei era (“Achieving Peace”), the Reiwa era (“Beautiful Harmony”) began. Another important political event in Japan was summer elections in the upper house of parliament (the House of Councillors). The elections were of great importance for the ruling Liberal Democratic Party (LDP) and the Japanese government. The strength of positions and rating of executive power depended on the outcome of elections. In general, the results turned out to be satisfactory for the LDP. As for the opposition parties, their position in this house remained at the same level: the total number of their parliamentary seats does not exceed the number of the LDP’s mandates. Traditionally, after parliamentary elections, the Cabinet reshuffle takes place. The summit of heads of states of the Group of Twenty (G20), which took place in Osaka in June, was of great interest in the country and in the world. The agenda of the summit included discussions on the issues of world trade, the Paris Climate Agreement, measures to prevent negative information associated with terrorism on the Internet. However, the main attention was focused on separate bilateral meetings of the leaders of the leading states: Russia, the United States, China, Japan. At the end of the G20 summit, Russian President Vladimir Putin held full-fledged talks with Japanese Prime Minister Shinzo Abe. Last year, there were other events that did not bring joy to the inhabitants of the Japanese islands: increase of the consumption tax from 8 to 10 percent, powerful typhoons “Hagibis” and “Faxai” which caused severe destruction and floods in the central area of Honshu Island and death of over 90 people, etc.
Keywords: Constitution of Japan, Emperor of Japan, parliament, Cabinet, political parties, Prime Minister, G20 summit