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#22018
CONTENTS

IMAGE OF RUSSIA IN ASIA-PACIFIC COUNTRIES
Viktor Larin, Institute of History, Archaeology and Ethnography of the Peoples of the Far East, FEB RAS, Vladivostok, Russia. E-mail: victorlar@mail.ru.
Liliia Larina, Institute of History, Archaeology and Ethnography of the Peoples of the Far East, FEB RAS, Vladivostok, Russia. E-mail: lilylar25@mail.ru.
The article presents the results of an opinion poll conducted in spring and summer 2017 in four regions of the Far Eastern District: the Primorsky Region, the Kamchatka Region, the Magadan Region and the Sakhalin Region. More than one thousand and one hundred people where asked about their attitude toward China and Chinese. According to the results, the authors come to the conclusion that China doesnt hold leading positions in terms of general popularity. However, its position in this rating is strengthening consistently. The people of the Primorsky Territory consider China the top priority to develop economic relations, while the inhabitants of the Sakhalin, Kamchatka and Magadan Territories give preference to the Siberian and Far Eastern Territories of Russia and Japan. People are confident in the favorable development of Russian-Chinese relations, they hope for Chinese investments in local economy and demonstrate growing tolerance toward the presence of Chinese workers and businessmen in Russia. At the same time, the survey shows that some people continue to consider China as a threat. The article examines the sources which help the people of the Far East to have the image of China, evaluates the level of tolerance of respondents and their willingness for cultural cooperation with Chinese. The most interesting results are analyzed through the lenses of gender, age and territory of residence.
Keywords: public opinion, China, Chinese, Pacific Russia.
Soren Urbansky, German Historical Institute, Washington, D.C., USA. E-mail: urbansky@ghi-dc.org.
The article examines the impact of the hostilities between the Soviet Union and China during the period of the bitterest disagreement between the two great socialist powers on the local and regional level at the border between the two states. The article focuses on the region of Chita (Eastern Transbaikalian region) and Hulunbuir (Inner Mongolia). The author tries to shed light on the presentation of the border and the Sino-Soviet conflict in the regional Soviet media and nationwide publishing, as well as on the construction of the enemy and the image of China on the Soviet side. Based on central and regional archival sources and contemporary newspapers the analysis of the Soviet propaganda reveals that the conflict produced only very few innovations in technology and content. Instead, propaganda material had rather been dug out of the relic box. Many of the Soviet themes were simply adopted from propaganda material used during the confrontation along the border with China and Manchukuo in the 1920s and 1930s. Enemy concepts dating back to this former phase of the conflict were rekindled and remained stereotypical and abstract. While the Soviet hero was given a specific face, the enemy in China and the Middle Kingdom remained abstract to the Soviet reader. Because of isolation, the local population perceived the people on the other side of the border as through frosted glass.
Keywords: Soviet Union, China, Sino-Soviet split, cross-border relations, propaganda, enemy concepts.
Marina Kovalchuk, Far Eastern Federal University, Vladivostok, Russia. E-mail: marinkoval@hotmail.com.
The article analyses the image of the Russian Empire presented in the book Seiyo Jijo (Conditions in the West) which was one of the first works written by famous Japanese author Fukuzawa Yukichi (18351901). This book has never been a subject of research in national historiography. The popularity ofSeiyo Jijo in Japan in the second half of the nineteenth century and the authors authority make it possible to speak about a great role of the book in creating the images of Russia in the Japanese society at that time and later. It is revealed that the image of the Russian Empire was based on the information obtained by Fukuzawa from English encyclopedic sources. This influenced the nature of his judgments about the government which had been one of Great Britains main rivals in foreign policy. In the book Seiyo Jijo Russia is depicted as a strong military power pursuing the policy of progressive territorial expansion. Such description caused anxiety in Japan as it was one of the closest neighbor of the Russian Empire. The author assumes that such image was created in order to encourage the Japanese society to start modernization of their own government as quick as possible. Fukuzawa Yukichi believed in success and set examples of the reforms of Peter the Great from the history of Russia.
Keywords: the history of Russian-Japanese relations, the image of Russia in Japan, Fukuzawa Yukichi, Seiyo Jijo, Conditions in the West.
Tatyana Kulepanova (Shugaylo), Primorsky State Associated Museum named after V.K. Arsenyev, Vladivostok, Russia. E-mail: randy-t@rambler.ru.
The article deals with ideological and political stances of the Russian emigration in the United States towards the USSR in 1945 the early 1950s. Relying upon the theory of historical imagology, the author studied emigrant publications of different political connotations. The turning point in the attitudes of the anti-communist part of the Russian expatriate community in the US towards the USSR occurred during the World War II. The journalists of the emigrant press who had joined the defensism movement advocated for the USSR fight against the fascism despite their anti-Soviet views. During these years, the us them/others dichotomy was fundamental for the political discourse about the Soviet Union, and the Soviet society was presented in this context in the anti-communist periodicals. The positive components of the USSR image included our Russian people opposed to them/others Soviet power. Many anti-communist publications stopped criticizing the Soviet regime during the war. After the onset of the Cold War, anti-Soviet stereotypes actualized in the minds of Russian emigrants and further boosted the negative image of the USSR. However, that image was not similar across the anti-communist press. The ideas about the Russian nation embodying the future of the Russian state were a significant positive constituent. In the publications of the pro-Soviet Russian Voice the us vs. them/others dichotomy manifested the us USSR against the aggressor the United States. The image of the USSR in the minds of Russian emigrants was shaped by many factors including social and historical past experience, international situation and political views of the receiving community.
Keywords: Russian emigration in the United States, Russian emigrant press, the USSR, imagology, Cold War.
Nikolay Goryachev, Institute of History, Archaeology and Ethnography of the Peoples of the Far East, FEB RAS, Vladivostok, Russia. E-mail: goryachev@ihaefe.ru.
The article describes the formation of images of Russia and China in modern Peru in two aspects: political and cultural. The analysis of the process of establishing and developing the interstate relations of these countries as partner states revealed the features of the development of their mutual relations in different historical periods, key areas of cooperation, and the role of the government in shaping its views on other participants in the process of international relations. Due to a number of factors, Perus relations with China and Russia are currently being built on two different patterns. Regarding the Peruvian views, Russias image as a friendly but distant country developed despite the global representation of Russia by modern media from around the world, and the relations between Peru and Russia have a relatively stable and positive basis. As for China, the people of Peru have a more detailed view on China because of the long-term interaction with the Chinese diaspora living in this country. There is a bilateral interest in economic partnership supported by Chinas active actions, but these actions are often perceived negatively by the Peruvians because of the behavior of Chinese investors. In the current situation, Russia has the opportunity to develop cooperation with Peru in various areas relying on the positive legacy of Soviet-Peruvian relations and modern humanitarian ties.
Keywords: the image of Russia, Peruvian-Russian cooperation, the image of China, Peruvian-Chinese cooperation, cultural relations.

INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS
Evgeny Kanaev, Center for Asia-Pacific Studies, IMEMO RAS, Moscow, Russia. E-mail: e.a.kanaev@gmail.com.
The article distinguishes the specificity of the US policy towards the South China Sea issue in relations with the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) through the prism of enhancing ASEANs role as a driving force of multilateral security dialogue in the Asia-Pacific region. The outlines of the American approach to the issue during and after the Cold War are drawn, the influence of the Chinese-American contradictions upon ASEANs policy is identified, the consequences of the US reaction on the verdict of the Permanent Court of Arbitration for ASEANs role as a driving force of the Asia-Pacific multilateral dialogue frameworks are examined, the repercussions of the project of the Indo-Pacific region and its current institutional frame the Quadrilateral Defense Cooperation for the further evolution of the South China Sea issue in the US-ASEAN dialogue are presented. Scenarios of the future evolution of ASEAN unity on the South China Sea issue through the lens of the Quads further development, prospects for the ASEAN countries to join this format and Chinas counter-measures are considered. The findings of the article reveal that in the practical realm the strengthening of ASEAN unity and its positions as a driving force of the Asia-Pacific multilateral security dialogue platforms with the focus on the South China Sea issue has never been a priority task for Washington.
Keywords: US, ASEAN, South China Sea, Indo-Pacific Region, Quadrilateral Defense Cooperation.

PROBLEMS OF DEVELOPMENT OF PERIPHERAL AREAS
Vitalii Boldyrev, Institute of History, Archaeology and Ethnography of the Peoples of the Far East, FEB RAS, Vladivostok, Russia. E-mail: boldyrev89@list.ru.
Using the elements of the conception of the history of everyday life and a temporal approach, the author analyses modern processes of the social development in Canadas North. The formation of networks of social interaction among different social groups has become a key peculiarity of these processes. They appear in the context of federal government policy and regional development. After Canadas Northern Strategy 2008, these processes became especially intensive because the formerly united region was divided into two administrative dimensions: federal and provincial. Nevertheless, the nature of interaction is determined by the level of economic and social development. There are two main models: a conflict model and a partner model. The first one is typical for the regions with a low level of industrial development. In this case, there is a conflict of interests between the representatives of mining business and aboriginal population. Correspondingly, both groups interact only with their supporters. A partner model is common for Canadas North with diversified economy and wide interaction of various social groups on different economic issues. It is predicted that this interaction model will dominate in the region with the economic development. This model proposes the following specific tendencies: large extractive industries will be the most influential social power, the development of the partner model of social interaction will be continued, the communities of indigenous peoples will be transformed in the elements of modern society, modern economy will be adapted to the regional specific conditions of the North.
Keywords: Canada, the North, the Northern Strategy, provinces, business, aboriginal people, society, economy.

HISTORY OF THE RUSSIAN FAR EAST
Svetlana Dudarenok, Far Eastern Federal University, Vladivostok, Russia. E-mail: dudarenoksv@gmail.com.
Vadim Agapov, Far Eastern Federal University, Vladivostok, Russia. E-mail: agapov_vl@mail.ru.
The beginning of the twentieth century was the golden age for the Russian press. Numerous newspapers took an active part in the struggle of the bourgeoisie against the autocracy. They strongly criticized the government and the officials. The Russian Orthodox Church, as a state religious denomination, was also targeted for criticism. This article analyses the administration actions of the Primorye Region of the Russian Empire to protect the Russian Orthodox Church from attacks by the press. The sources of the research are the publications of Primorye newspapers of that time (Distant Region (Dalyokaya Okraina), Far East (Dalniy Vostok), Amur Region (Priamurskiy Krai), Present Day (Tekushchiy Den), Ussuri Region (Ussuriyskaya Okraina)) and unpublished documents of the Russian State Historical Archive (RGIA, F. 776, General Directorate of Press) and the Russian State Historical Archive of The Far East (RGIA DV. F. 24. Vladivostok Inspector of Press). It is shown that both metropolitan and local authorities compared criticism of the Church in the press to distrust and hostility towards the Government. The penalty which was awarded to newspapers depended on whether the Church was criticized as an institution or its separate representatives. In the first case, the publication could have been suspended for an indefinite period. The newspaper Present Day (Tekushchiy Den) by F.V. Misyura underwent such punishment in 1912. In the second case, responsible editors were punished with a fine. If they couldnt pay it off, they were arrested and put in prison. In 1913, such penalty happened to the editors D.P. Panteleev of Distant Region (Dalyokaya Okraina), G.I. Antipa of Amur Region (Priamurskiy Krai) and K.I. Lepin of Ussuri Region (Ussuriyskaya Okraina). They got charged for independent publications and reprints from metropolitan newspapers. G. Rasputin was often the hero of such reprints. In the end, the press was forbidden to write about Rasputin.
Keywords: Russian Empire, Russian Orthodox Church, Primorye region, periodical press, priests, journalists.
Vasiliy Pashin, Kursk State University, Kursk, Russia. E-mail: pashinvp@mail.ru.
The article analyses some biographical and political views of Commander-in-Chief of the Armed Forces and Marching Ataman of the Cossack Army of the Russian eastern part, Lieutenant General Grigoriy Mikhailovich Semenov during his emigration. The research is based on the declassified documents of the Central Archive of the Foreign Intelligence Service of the Russian Federation which have been introduced into scientific discourse. New records substantially supplement his biographic data, his service record and personal characteristics which were briefly presented in encyclopedic dictionaries and scientific research. The primary focus is on his efforts to establish close relations with Soviet Intelligence Service and to go over to the side of Bolshevik Russia. Yet, a soviet stereotype of the officials of the Peoples Commissariat for Foreign Affairs dominated and won: G.M. Semenovs past was more important than his current activity and modern thinking. He was not given a chance to correct his mistakes. His example reveals a tragedy of almost two million forced emigrants of the 1920s. Archive materials prove that Ataman G.M. Semenov didnt take part in the anti-Soviet activity and made attempts to minimize it in his social environment. It is stated that he was not a double agent and his wish to return back to Motherland was sincere. Obviously, a professional military man is not always a good and competent politician. The materials from archive funds demonstrate that the refusal for G.M. Semenovs return was an obvious miscalculation of the Foreign Intelligence Service of the USSR.
Keywords: Cossacks, China, Japan, the white emigration, agent, Joint State Political Directorate.
Yulia Kovalevskaya, Institute of History, Archaeology and Ethnography of the Peoples of the Far East, FEB RAS, Vladivostok, Russia. E-mail: tupa67@mail.ru.
The research focuses on the perception of post-Soviet social stratification by the inhabitants of the Far East. The importance of this issue is that justice or injustice of the hierarchy in the society is a significative factor of its stability and legitimacy of the government. Field surveys (interviews) recorded specific forms and practices of ascending and descending social mobility of the people of the Far East as well as everyday rationalization and moral evaluation of the growth of inequality. The analysis of field surveys made it possible to describe market reforms in the Russian Far East as involution (redistribution without evolution). The trajectories of social stratification started to develop in the Soviet period. Ascending social mobility was associated with the access to state resources (both material and power) and was carried out through informal social groups and networks. The redistribution of income was realized not only through privatization but also through practices of social exclusion and discrimination: underfunding of territories, labor and social sphere, withdrawal of public resources, price scissors, etc. It is concluded that post-Soviet inequality is perceived by the inhabitants of the Far East as excessive and unfair. The income and status of workers of physically demanding and socially useful jobs (sailors, fishermen, miners, construction workers, farmers, teachers, doctors) decreased significantly. These people became working poor and followed the ethics of survival in their social behavior: they tried to hold the white work despite reduction and delay of wages, they exposed themselves to overexploitation in order to maintain the standard of living, a lot of people were engaged in pendulum work migration.
Keywords: Russian Far East, post-Soviet society, social stratification, inequality, blat, informal economy, everyday life, survival practices, involution.

ARCHAEOLOGY AND ETHNOGRAPHY
Nadezhda Artemeva, Institute of History, Archaeology and Ethnography of the Peoples of the Far East, FEB RAS, Vladivostok, Russia. E-mail: artemieva_tg@list.ru.
Sergej Makievskij, Institute of History, Archaeology and Ethnography of the Peoples of the Far East, FEB RAS, Vladivostok, Russia. E-mail: makievskiy@list.ru.
A medieval site dated back to a period of the Joseon dynasty has been first discovered in Primorye. The medieval military post of Shuiliufeng is located in Khasansky District, on the border with the PRC. It has the shape of an isosceles trapezium with the area of 3,5 ha. The defensive walls were made of stone blocks exceeding 2 meters in height. The site was surrounded with ditches functioned as the additional defensive constructions. The eastern, southern and northern walls had one breach (gate) per side that was used as a passage. The archaeological research has been conducted on the territory of the southern gate. The gate within the wall was set on the place of the breach and decorated with a column arch. It was 2 meters wide and 5,5 meters long. The fortified structures of the site and the archeological materials gathered on its territory gave us an opportunity to determine the time when the post had been built. It must have happened at the period when the Joseon Kingdom (13921897) was defining its borders. After taking under control the area southward from the Tumen River and forcing out the Jurchen people, the Dynasty faced the problem of their continuous raids. Under those circumstances in 1434 the Kingdom had to establish six military districts for the purposes of self-defense and strengthening of the influence on that territory. The border of each district was marked with some military outposts. The site of Shuiliufeng is likely to have been one of those outposts. It had been performing defensive functions for a long time and can be associated with the name of a famous Korean naval commander Li Songxin, who was posted to the Bukbyeng military district in the north-eastern part of Hamgyeng province.
Keywords: Primorye, late medieval archaeology, the Joseon kingdom, the Jurchen, fortification, stone embankment, outpost, gate, roofing tiles, eathernware.
Vadim Turaev, Institute of History, Archaeology and Ethnography of the Peoples of the Far East, FEB RAS, Vladivostok, Russia. E-mail: v_turaev@mail.ru.
The article presents the traumatic consequences of the Russian-Japanese territorial delimitations for the Russian Ainu in 1855, 1875 and 1945. The destiny of the Ainu of the Southern Kurils with Russian citizenship from 1777 was determined by the Treaty of Shimoda (1855) according to which Shikotan, Kunashir and Iturup were given to Japan. Previously, the Japanese had visited the islands only for trade purposes; afterwards, their economic development and forced Japanization began. The number of the Southern Kuril Ainu decreased by a factor of 30 in less than 100 years. By 1973, this group disappeared completely. A similar situation happened with the Ainu of the Northern Kurils after their ressetlement to Japan (1875) in exchange for renunciation of Sakhalin. Some Ainu moved to Kamchatka, others did not dare to leave their homeland and became Japanese citizens. In both cases, they eventually dissolved in native population. The delimitation of 1875 put the Sakhalin Ainu into a dilemma. Those people who had relatives among the Japanese and Ainu in Hokkaido opted for Japan. About half of them died there from the epidemic of cholera and smallpox in 18861887. The others began to return illegally to their homeland. Unfortunately, the Russian administration of Sakhalin failed to gain confidence among the Ainu. The destruction of their economy which had started during the Japanese period continued. In 1905, they were under the authority of Japan again. After its defeat in the Second World War, the Sakhalin Ainu could have become Soviet citizens but this did not happen. As the citizens of Japan, they were repatriated to Hokkaido. In Japan they were treated cautiously and they were called Tsuysikari-Ainu. In order to avoid discrimination, they concealed their origins and stopped considering themselves the Ainu.
Keywords: the Ainu, the Kuril Islands, Sakhalin, Japan.
Viktor Krivonogov, Institute of Humanities, Siberian Federal University, Krasnoyarsk, Russia. E-mail: victor950@yandex.ru.
The article analyses the results of the research which was conducted among the Yami people (they often call themselves the Tao) during the ethnographic expedition to Orchid (Lanyu) Island in June 2017. One of the methods was the public opinion poll with the sampling of five percent representing a standardized interview. The main objective of the research was data collection about national composition of population, number of inhabitants of the island and the settlement system. These data dont always coincide with official statistics. Gathered information allows characterizing linguistic, demographic and migration processes, revealing main tendencies of modern ethnic processes, especially ethnic interaction with the Taiwanese. In recent decades, over one third of the Tao have moved to Taiwan where assimilation happens actively. Nationally mixed marriages are widely spread, almost all Tao people have learnt and speak Chinese. At the same time, the knowledge of mother tongue started to decrease a significant number of children almost dont speak it or speak badly. The number of nationally mixed marriages at Lanyu Island is not that much (around one fifth of all marriages) but the number of mestizos among the Tao people is growing quickly: over half of the Tao children are of mixed Tao-Chinese origin. The conclusions about the growth of assimilative processes among local people as well as about the changes in economy, social structure and education of the Tao people are drawn.
Keywords: Taiwan, Yami, Tao, modern ethnic processes, linguistic assimilation, nationally mixed marriages, cross-breeding.

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