50TH ANNIVERSARY OF IHAE FEB RAS
A.S. Zakolodnaya, A.E. Savchenko, Zh.M. Bazhenova. The History of the Institute in Documents
TWO SIGNIFICANT DATES: THE 100TH ANNIVERSARY OF THE COMMUNIST PARTY OF CHINA AND THE 20TH ANNIVERSARY OF THE RUSSIAN-CHINESE TREATY OF GOOD-NEIGHBORLINESS, FRIENDSHIP AND COOPERATION
V.L. Larin. Preface
Ya. Wenbin. China and Sino-Russian Relations on the Brink of a New Historical Stage
Luo Wendong, secretary of the party committee, deputy director, Institute of World History, Chinese Academy of Social Sciences; professor and head of doctoral programme at the University of the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences; vice president of the Chinese Association for Scientific Socialism, Beijing, China. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
The Communist Party of China won the democratic revolution and established the People’s Republic of China, ushering in a new era in Chinese history. It led the socialist revolution and the building of socialism to great achievements, laying the political preconditions, material foundations and institutional guarantees for the development and progress of modern China. The CPC initiated a series of great achievements in the policy of reforms and openness paving the way to socialism with Chinese characteristics and realizing the full potential of the Chinese people. The Party has made tremendous efforts to pursue the Chinese dream of the great rejuvenation of the Chinese nation. The secret of the CCP’s success in changing China is the close contact with the people, leadership based on scientific theories, and the coordinated promotion of the Party’s self-revolution and the great social revolution.
Keywords: Communist Party of China, historical success, core experience, central force.
X. Guangcheng. Mao Zedong and Deng Xiaoping about the Soviet Factor in the One Hundred Years’ History of the Chinese Communist Party
Xing Guangcheng, Honorary Doctor of the Far Eastern Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Chinese Academy of Social Studies, Beijing, People’s Republic of China. E-mail: email@example.com.
The paper analyses the views of two leaders of the Chinese Communist Party and the People’s Republic of China — Mao Zedong and Deng Xiaoping — on the influence of the Russian October Revolution and the experience of socialism building in the USSR on the formation of Marxism in China, the victory of the Chinese Revolution, the ways and methods of socialist construction in the PRC. According to the author’s opinion, both leaders carefully studied the works of Lenin and Stalin, understood and appreciated the significance of the events in the USSR, the experience of the USSR in socialism building, considered its use to be very important and necessary. However, they opposed the blind copying and implementation of the Soviet model of socialism in China and stressed the necessity to take into account the specific features of each country. They paid great attention to the ideas of V.I. Lenin on the new economic policy in Soviet Russia and their application in China.
Keywords: China, USSR, Mao Zedong, Deng Xiaoping, building of socialism.
A.A. Khisamutdinov. L. Ying. Sinologist from Vladivostok Sergey A. Polevoy and the First Chinese Communists
Amir Khisamutdinov, Far Eastern Federal University, Vladivostok, Russia. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Liang Ying, Far Eastern Federal University, Vladivostok, Russia. E-mail: email@example.com.
The paper is dedicated to Sergey Alexandrovich Polevoy (1886, Ukraine — 1971, USA), a Sinologist and a public figure in China. After the graduation from the Oriental Institute in Vladivostok (1913) and the defense of his master’s thesis at the Oriental Faculty of St. Petersburg University (1915), Polevoy arrived in China in 1917 on a scholarship from the Ministry of Education and was forced to stay in this country after the news about the October Revolution in Russia. The authors focus on the versatile activities of Polevoy in China. He taught Russian at Nankai and Peking Universities, conducted research work on compiling a Russian-Chinese dictionary and studying folklore, translated the works of Chinese writers into Russian, distributed Soviet literature, published textbooks and study guides, participated in social and political movements supporting the progressive leaders of China. The paper describes the details of Polevoy’s social and political activities in China between 1919 and the 1930s. Having got acquainted with political leaders and leading figures of culture and education (Li Zhao, Chen Duxiu, Hu Shi, Lu Xin, Zhou Zuoren, etc.), he shared their views on the need for the revolutionary reorganization of Chinese society. Polevoy participated in the movements “May 4, 1919” and “For a New Culture”, introduced the Chinese revolutionaries, including Mao Zedong, to the experience of the Russian Bolsheviks, helped to establish their ties with the Comintern. S.A. Polevoy participated actively in the formation of the Chinese Communist Party. The publication is based on materials from the private collection of the Polevoy family, documents from foreign and domestic archives, Chinese and Russian publications about Polevoy. The study of the sources made it possible to draw a conclusion about the close connection of Polevoy with the progressive leaders of China between 1919 and the 1930s, his active participation in the social and political life of the country and his close involvement in the creation of the Chinese Communist Party.
Keywords: S.A. Polevoy, Communist Party of China, Comintern in China, Sinology, Sino-Russian dictionary.
Ivan Stavrov, Institute of History, Archeology and Ethnology of the Peoples of the Far East, FEB RAS, Vladivostok, Russia. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
This paper attempts to examine the evolution of the official position of the Chinese Communist Party from its foundation to the present. The party line was influenced by specific circumstances, so over time it underwent significant changes. At the stage of organizational formation, the CPC’s course was based on the “Soviet model” aimed at building a federal state with the right to secession of the republics. Having come to power, the communists abruptly changed their position: they refused to build a federation and went on to create a unitary state with an extensive system of regional national autonomy. This approach facilitated the management of the national remote areas and made it possible to establish control over them. The era of the Great Leap Forward and the Cultural Revolution became a time of social upheaval for the country. The party’s stance on the “national question” during this period stemmed from the essence of the social experiments being carried out: the accelerated building of communism could not do without the accelerated merging of nationalities, which in practice led to the de facto ban on traditional culture. Between the 1970s and the early 1980s, the policy of the Communist Party returned to the practice of the 1950s. In the 1980s, the leadership of the Chinese Communist Party recognized the strategic importance of the “national question” for China’s development. It was clearly defined that national problems could be gradually resolved taking into account the specific historical situation, provided that the culture of ethnic minorities was respected. The non-Han peoples have been proclaimed as an integral part of the Chinese nation which harmonious development is dependent on the quality of interethnic relations in the country.
Keywords: China, CPC, “national question”, ethnopolitics, Soviet model, regional national autonomy, ethnic minorities.
A.I. Labyuk. Potential and Problems of the Russian-Chinese Cross-Border Cooperation in the Chinese Experts’ Estimates (2016—2020)
Aleksandra Labyuk, Institute of History Archaeology and Ethnology, FEB RAS, Vladivostok, Russia. E-mail: email@example.com.
Northeast China and the Russian Far East share a substantial common border and they are connected with each other by various levels of contacts. Beijing and Moscow conclude agreements, develop projects and plan programs that could open up prospects for bilateral cooperation and co-development. Experts from Russia, China and other countries have been discussing the prospects for strengthening cross-border relations between the two countries, have been evaluating and making forecasts for over three decades. The paper examines the questions that were analysed by Chinese experts from 2016 until 2020 when, due to Russia’s reorientation to the East and aggravation of the foreign economic relations with the West, the upsurge in publications on Russian — Chinese cooperation as well as cross-border cooperation happened. The paper focuses on the views of Chinese researchers such as economists, political scientists, experts in international relations and Russian-Chinese relations from various scientific organizations on the current situation in the three northeastern provinces (Heilongjiang, Jilin, Liaoning) and in the Far East, on the situation, prospects and directions of regional cooperation between the two countries, on existing and planned joint cross-border and global projects as well as on difficulties and ways to overcome them.
Keywords: Far East, China, Heilongjiang, Jilin, Liaoning, cross-border cooperation.
E.O. Zakliazminskaia, V.A. Sychev. Export of China’s Nuclear Power Technologies: Between Politics and Economy
Ekaterina Zakliazminskaia, Primakov National Research Institute of World Economy and International Relations, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russia. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Vasily Sychev, Institute of International Law, Vologda, Russia. E-mail: email@example.com.
In 2021, China celebrates the centenary of the founding of the Communist Party of China. The successful implementation of the first centenary goal of completing the construction of the moderately prosperous society xiaokang has demonstrated the success of China in many areas to the world. This paper examines the achievements of China in the field of nuclear power. The authors analyze the dynamics and structure of China’s nuclear power technology exports from 1990 to 2020 in relation to the world geopolitical architecture. The authors evaluate China’s position in the global nuclear energy market, describe the current legal restrictions on the development of nuclear technologies, assess the commodity structure of Chinese exports of sensitive technologies and China’s technological potential in the development of the “peaceful atom”. The country structure of the current and potential exports of nuclear power technologies is analyzed in detail as well as short-, medium- and long-term forecasts for the development of the industry are presented. The authors come to the conclusion that the leading role in the export of sensitive technologies is assigned not to economic benefits but to the geopolitical interests of Beijing: successful examples of cooperation with the countries of the Belt and Road Initiative and difficulties in the implementation of projects with Western countries are not mainly associated with the intense competition or the underdevelopment of Chinese technologies but with the desire of other poles of power, primarily the United States, to restrain the rapid rise of China in high-tech industries and “dual-use” goods. The emphasized factors confirm the conclusions of the authors that the “nuclear renaissance” in China will not be phased out due to the pandemic but will be continued, even expanded in the short-, medium- and long-term prospects and included in the tasks of the second centenary goal.
Keywords: China, atomic energy, export, geopolitics, nuclear renaissance, foreign policy, Belt and Road Initiative, Two Centenaries.
HISTORY OF THE FAR EAST
Olga Ustyugova, Institute of History, Archaeology and Ethnology of the Peoples of the Far East, FEB RAS, Vladivostok, Russia. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
The paper deals with the import substitution of salt supply in the Far East of the USSR in the 1920s through state and cooperative organizations — the salt syndicate, Dalgostorg and Daltsentrosoyuz. After the establishment of Soviet power in the Far East, the development of foreign trade demanded to reduce the dependence from import and to create possibilities for realization of domestic industry products in the domestic market. Due to the fact that salt as an essential product and a raw material for fishing industry was in high demand, the government pursued the policy on substituting foreign salt by domestic salt. Special attention was paid to salt supply by means of salt extraction in the Far East. The authorities initiated the studies of salt extraction from sea water by domestic industry in order to improve it technologically. The project of high-quality salt delivery from the Irkutsk salt plant was not implemented because of the high cost of its products. The government found the most promising way to supply the region with salt by sea from the south of the USSR. In 1923—1926, some of the necessary amount of salt was imported. By 1927, the import of salt for the population had stopped, but the dependence of the fishing industry on foreign salt import remained, especially in the Okhotsk-Kamchatka fishing district. The syndicate did not manage to stop the import of salt for Japanese fishing industry in Soviet waters. The complete market penetration of the Far East by Soviet salt did not happen.
Keywords: Far East, salt, salt extraction, salt syndicate, supply, trade, import substitution.
Aleksey Maklyukov, Institute of History, Archaeology and Ethnology of the Peoples of the Far East, FEB RAS, Vladivostok, Russia. E-mail: email@example.com.
The paper discusses the historical aspects of the development and implementation of the Zeya hydroelectric station project — the first hydroelectric station built between 1964 and 1980 in the Russian Far East. In the context of the state policy of accelerated development of the productive forces of the Far Eastern Economic Region, the construction features of the Zeya hydroelectric station are revealed, its role in creating a unified energy system in the south of the Far East is determined. The idea of building a hydroelectric station on the Zeya river appeared in the early 1930s, but only in the 1950s, the institute “Hydroenergyproject” developed the Zeya hydroelectric station project, which received the support of scientists of the USSR Academy of Sciences. A number of controversial factors delayed the government’s decision to build the Zeya hydroelectric station. The construction of the waterworks began only in 1964 and was carried out with great difficulties in the harsh climatic conditions of the undeveloped northeast of the Amur Region. The most advanced technologies in the USSR and the world were used during the design and construction of the station that made it unique. The Zeya hydroelectric station, which was built in 1980, became the most powerful power station in the Far East, made it possible to connect the Amur Region, the Khabarovsk and Primorye Territories with a power grid, to build the eastern section of BAM and to electrify the Trans-Siberian Railway. The author comes to the conclusion that the Zeya hydroelectric station was a timely and most important implemented project in the Far East, it brought the Far Eastern electric power industry to a qualitatively new level of development and contributed to the accelerated economic recovery, modernization of industry and transport, and improvement in the quality of life of the Far East.
Keywords: electrification, hydropower, construction, Zeya hydroelectric station, Far East.
Dmitriy Makoveev, Institute of History, Archaeology and Ethnology of the Peoples of the Far East, FEB RAS, Vladivostok, Russia. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
To solve the problem of reconstructing the Jurchen complex of ranged weapons, it is necessary to study the military equipment: quivers, sagadaks and quiver belts. At different times, researchers have addressed these issues. V.E. Shavkunov examined the Jurchen quivers according to the preserved medieval images as well as individual archaeological findings identified as details of quivers. Y.M. Vasilyev developed the reconstruction of the quiver belt of the Amur Jurchens based on the findings from the burial grounds of the Amur Region. The items related to quivers and quiver belts were also found at Lazovskoye, Ananyevskoe, Shaiginskoye settlements in Primorye, but these findings did not provide an opportunity to make the accurate reconstruction of the quiver. No details of the sagadaks were found in the Jurchen monuments; therefore, none of the researchers were engaged in the reconstruction of the Jurchen sagadak as a separate object, but its image can be restored from the pictures. The sources for the study were the images of the Jurchens from the Jin monuments, Chinese paintings with the images of the Jurchen warriors of the 11th—12th centuries, which were painted by artists of the 13th—18th centuries, frescoes from Khitan tombs of the Liao state as well as archaeological materials from the Jurchen monuments in the Primorye and Amur Regions.The research made it possible to conclude what quivers, sagadaks and quiver belts were used by the Jurchen people.
Keywords: Jurchen people, Jin State, military equipment, quivers, sagadak, quiver belt.
Natalia Tatarenkova, The Commander Islands Nature and Biosphere Reserve Named after S.V. Marakov, Nikolskoye Village, Russia. E-mail: Nata_Bering_island@mail.ru.
The paper is devoted to the research on bird hunting by the Aleuts of the Commander Islands. All known hunting methods and techniques are described basing on the analysis of field data, having been collected for over 20 years, and the detailed study of museum exhibits. The hunting tools and methods (throwing objects, nets, seines, drag nets and other devices) are examined in detail. Special attention is paid to structural features of tools and hunting methods depending on bird species. It is recorded that colonial seabirds were the main hunting species for the Aleuts of the Commander Islands. Hunting ducks, geese, partridges and passerines was seasonal. Bird hunting was an integral part of the island culture. The traditions of using quills, down, skin, bones for creating utilitarian and cult objects as well as some local beliefs about birds are described. Cooking techniques of meat, gathering and storage of eggs are examined. The author concludes that, in comparison with other types of natural resources, bird hunting was the least influenced by Western culture due to rather low volume hunting and the focus on internal needs of the island society. Nowadays, the biological resources are controlled by environmental structures, and gathering volumes reduced drastically. However, the main techniques in bird hunting and gathering eggs have not been lost so far.
Keywords: Aleuts, Commander Islands, traditional use of natural resources, colonial seabirds, hunting methods.